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  • 1 Acadian Expulsion

    During the Seven Years War, more than 14,000 Acadians were forcibly expelled from their homeland and dispersed throughout the British colonies. Thousands died of illness and starvation during deportation.

  • 2 Act of Supremacy

    The Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared King Henry VIII supreme head of the Church of England.

  • 3 Act of Union of 1841

    The Act of Union of 1841 united Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada) under a single government. Called the United Province of Canada, this governmental structure lasted until Confederation in 1867.

  • 4 American Bible Society Founded

  • 5 American Civil War

  • 6 American War of Independence

    1 record(s) found

  • 7 Anti-Semitic Pogroms in Russia and Jewish Refugees in Ontario

    From 1881-84 and 1903-06, a series of anti-semitic pogroms (riots) swept through Russia and eastern Europe, resulting in several waves of mass Jewish emigration to Canada. With the murder of Tsar Alexander II (1818-81) of Russia, rumours of a Jewish assassin heightened existing tensions between Jews and Orthodox Christians. The first riot occurred in 1881 at Elisavetgrad (now Kirovohrad, Ukraine), and pogroms soon erupted in urban centres across Imperial Russia. Thousands of Jewish businesses were vandalized, homes destroyed and Jews themselves injured. The pogroms and apparent indifference of the Russian authorities resulted in a wave of Jewish emigration to North America in the 1880s. Jewish emigration also increased as a result of the May Laws (1882), a series of Russian restrictions on Jewish settlement, employment and education. Arriving in established Jewish communities in Montreal, Toronto and Hamilton, Jewish refugees gathered to form new synagogues. In Toronto, the Goel Tzedec congregation was established by Lithuanians in 1883, transplanting their Orthodox Jewish traditions. A number of Jewish immigrants travelled further west to the Prairies, encouraged to settle and farm by the Canadian government. A second wave of pogroms in Russia broke out in 1903 at Chisinau (now Kishinev, Moldova). The level of violence increased dramatically, fuelling a new wave of mass Jewish emigration. From 1901-11, the number of Jews in Canada rose from 16,717 to 75,838. During this decade, the number of Jewish social service organizations across Ontario grew to meet the needs of these new immigrants. The massive influx of Russian and eastern European Jews to Canada ultimately spread across Ontario, as Jewish populations were established in smaller towns, and Jewish communities in the province became increasingly diversified.

  • 8 Battle of Culloden

  • 9 Battle of the Plains of Abraham

  • 10 Bismarck's Kulturkampf

    The term kulturkampf (culture struggle) refers to Otto von Bismarck’s imposition of state controls on Roman Catholic activity in the newly created German Empire. Restrictive policies ensured that clergy who discussed politics from the pulpit faced imprisonment, religious teachers were forbidden to hold public office, and some Catholic orders – such as Jesuits – were banned from operating in Germany. Subsequently, thousands of Catholic priests and laypeople were imprisoned or forced into exile and many monasteries and convents were closed.

  • 11 Black Settlement in Oro Township

    Oro Township in Simcoe County was established in 1819 by the Executive Council of Upper Canada to help secure the province's northern frontier against a possible American invasion. The community was the first government-sponsored Black settlement in Upper Canada (Ontario). Land along the Penetanguishene Road was divided into 200-acre lots, which were offered to Black veterans of the War of 1812. By 1831, nine families had taken up residence along Wilberforce Street. They were later joined by Black settlers from Ohio and the Wilberforce Settlement in Biddulph Township, who were offered land grants by the Commissioner of Crown Lands. The settlers were only marginally successful in farming the land – which was remote, of poor quality, swampy and difficult to clear. The settlement eventually declined as farmers were discouraged by the harsh climate. Descendants of these settlers continue to live in the area, and the African Methodist Episcopal Church erected near Edgar in 1849 remains a testament to this early Black community in Upper Canada.

    1 record(s) found

  • 12 British North America Act of 1867

    Enacted by British Parliament in 1867, the British North America Act created the Dominion of Canada. The act structured the operation of the Government of Canada, established the division of powers between central and provincial legislatures and outlined what has become the basis of the Canadian Constitution.

  • 13 Canadian Confederation

  • 14 Chilean Coup of 1973

    In 1973, a military coup brought Augusto Pinochet to power in Chile.

  • 15 Chinese Civil War

  • 16 Clergy reserves

    The clergy reserves were lands in Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec) that were specifically set aside by the Constitution Act of 1791 to support the Anglican Church. Though the land was intended to support the Church of England (Anglican), the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian) was granted a claim in 1824 to a portion of the clergy reserves as an “established” Church in Canada. Income from the lands gave the Anglican and Presbyterian churches economic resources unavailable to other Protestant denominations, whose members petitioned for the redistribution of the lands amongst all Protestant groups in Upper Canada. In 1840, the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada divided the profits of the clergy reserves, with half designated for the Church of England and Church of Scotland, and the remaining half to all other Protestant denominations. In 1854, the Upper and Lower Canada coalition government of Sir Allan MacNab (1798-1862) and Augustin Morin (1803-65) passed legislation that secularized the clergy reserves as Crown Lands, redirecting their profits to regional municipality funds.

    3 record(s) found

  • 17 Commencement of Friday Prayers at Hart House

    Following the demand for labour in the post-Second World War Canadian economy, large numbers of South Asian immigrants came to Canada, particularly to urban areas like Toronto. Long-standing racial barriers to South Asian immigration, including the 1908 Bill of Direct Passage, which barred all Indian immigrants unless they had travelled to Canada directly from India, were slowly removed following the creation of Canadian citizenship application procedures in 1947. Due to an increasing Muslim student population at the University of Toronto, the Muslim Students' Association was founded in 1963, and began holding Friday prayer services in the Hart House Debates Room in 1967.

  • 18 Congress of Vienna

    The Congress of Vienna was an international conference that reorganized Europe's political landscape following decades of war and upheaval.

  • 19 Constitutional Act of 1791

    Created largely to accommodate growing numbers of Loyalists arriving from the United States following the American Revolutionary War, the Constitutional Act of 1791 was an act of British Parliament that divided what had been the province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada. While the act preserved existing privileges accorded the Roman Catholic Church, it bestowed large tracts of land – known as clergy reserves – on the Church of England.

  • 20 Continuing Presbyterians

    In the wake of the establishment of the United Church of Canada (made up of Presbyterians, Methodists and Congregationalists), approximately 30 per cent of Presbyterians chose not to join the United Church. They operated under the name of “Continuing Presbyterians” until 1939 when the Supreme Court of Canada gave them the right to retain the name Presbyterian. For this reason, many new Presbyterian congregations were created in 1925 in towns and cities across Ontario.

    32 record(s) found

  • 21 Council of Trent

    The Council of Trent was an ecumenical council convened by the Roman Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation. The council defined the Church’s positions on a number of important doctrinal and administrative issues. The resulting canons and decrees refuted Protestant teachings and largely reaffirmed the traditional beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church.

  • 22 Creation of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Peterborough

    Prior to the creation of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Peterborough, Irish Catholic immigrants made numerous requests to the Bishop of Kingston for the services of a priest and a purpose-built place of worship. Roman Catholic priests were sent to the area starting in the 1820s, and services were conducted in a series of log buildings and small structures. In 1836, St. Peter-in-Chains Church was built to accommodate 1,000 worshippers. In 1882, Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903) created the Diocese of Peterborough through an amalgamation of the Vicariate of Northern Canada with a portion of the Diocese of Kingston. The territory was vast, stretching from the northern shore of Lake Ontario to Georgian Bay, and from the shore of Lake Superior to the border of the Archdiocese of St. Boniface, Manitoba – incorporating 30,000 worshippers. In 1882, the diocese included 47 churches, as well as 11 Jesuit missionaries in First Nations communities. Rev. John Francis Jamot (1828-86), then-Vicar Apostolic of Northern Canada, was appointed the first Bishop of Peterborough.

  • 23 Creation of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Toronto

    Initially part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Quebec, Upper Canada (Ontario) was established in 1826 as a separate diocese under the control of Alexander MacDonell (1762-1840), Bishop of Kingston. The vast territory included all of Upper Canada. Continued immigration in the mid-19th century made the need for a division of the diocese apparent. In 1841, MacDonell’s successor Rémi Gaulin (1787-1857) named Michael Power (1804-47), a missionary from the Archdiocese of Quebec and of Irish descent, as candidate for the new diocese. After his appointment was approved by Pope Gregory XVI (1765-1846), Power was consecrated and moved to Toronto. The Diocese of Kingston was formally partitioned to include the Diocese of Toronto. The newly-created diocese encompassed the west and north of Upper Canada, from Oshawa past Penetanguishene towards James Bay. It included both isolated rural communities and increasingly crowded urban centres. In 1870, Toronto was elevated to the status of Archdiocese.

    1 record(s) found

  • 24 Crimean War

  • 25 Edict of Nantes

    The Edict of Nantes, issued by King Henry IV of France in 1598, granted substantial rights to the country’s Protestant Huguenot population. It marked the end of the French Wars of Religion.

  • 26 Establishment of Brethren in Christ Church

    A distinctive religious denomination similar in doctrine and practice to Mennonite assemblies, the Brethren in Christ Church emerged in Pennsylvania during the 1770s. It was established in Upper Canada in 1788 when Johannes Wenger (John Winger) – who later became bishop – and Jacob Sider formed a congregation here in Pelham. The denomination advocated adult conversion and baptism, and rejected secular pleasures, fashionable dress and political and military involvement. A small, tightly knit religious group because of these strongly-held views, the Brethren in Christ Church grew slowly, drawing its members, popularly known as Tunkers, primarily from German-speaking rural communities. By the end of the 19th century, however, it was firmly established in Welland, York, Waterloo and Simcoe counties.

  • 27 Establishment of the United States Bill of Rights

    The United States Bill of Rights entrenched religious and political freedoms in the American constitution.

  • 28 European Revolutions of 1848

  • 29 Evangelical United Brethren

    Formed in 1946, the Evangelical United Brethren in Canada had its roots in German-speaking settlements of 19th-century Pennsylvania. In 1800, Pastor William Otterbein (1726-1813) of the German Reformed Church in Baltimore, along with Mennonite preacher Martin Boehm (1725-1812) from Lancaster, Pennsylvania, formed the United Brethren in Christ. In 1807, Methodist preacher Jacob Albright (1759-1808) of Pottstown, Pennsylvania formed the Evangelical Church. In the early 19th century, many German-speaking settlers in Pennsylvania emigrated to Waterloo County, Upper Canada (Ontario). Because of a lack of spiritual leaders in the community, a missionary tour from the Evangelical Church was organized in 1836 throughout the Niagara peninsula. In August 1839, Bishop Joseph Seybert (1791-1860) and five other preachers met near Hillside Park in Waterloo and formed the first Evangelical Church congregation in Upper Canada. In 1946, the Evangelical Church joined with the United Brethren in Christ to form the Evangelical United Brethren. In 1968, with the decline of German-language religious services, the Evangelical United Brethren Church of Canada joined with the United Church of Canada.

  • 30 Ezekiel and Ann Dennis Settle in Niagara

    Ezekiel Dennis (1753-1810) and his wife Ann (née Heacock, 1751-1813) may have been the first Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) family to settle on the Niagara peninsula. This relocation occurred at the beginning of a massive influx of Loyalist Quaker settlers in Upper Canada (Ontario) who left the United States following the American Revolutionary War (1775-83). In 1782, the couple travelled from their home in Richmond, Pennsylvania to Canada with their six children, settling at Point Albino in Bertie Township (now Fort Erie). For six years, the family farmed and helped establish other Quaker homesteads in the area, including Dennis’ brother, sisters and their families in 1788. Property and tax records indicate that the Dennis family prospered; by 1797, the size of the family farm had increased by 500 acres. The number of Quaker immigrants, encouraged by early settlers like the Dennis family, had grown substantially by 1797, and a Monthly Meeting of the Friends in the Niagara District was organized.

  • 31 Falklands War

  • 32 Fenian Raids

    The Fenian Brotherhood, a militant organization of Irish-Americans dedicated to the establishment of an Irish Republic independent from Great Britain, made several raids on British North America between 1866 and 1871. Their aim was to capture key sites in British North America in order to pressure Britain into withdrawing from Ireland. The Fenian movement divided Irish-Canadian communities, exacerbated antagonism between Catholics and Protestants, and strained relations between the United States and Canada. The Fenian threat, however, and the resulting desire for a strong, centralized defence was a significant impetus for Canadian Confederation.

  • 33 First Amish Settlement in Ontario

    In 1822, Christian Nafziger – an Amish Mennonite from Munich, Germany – came to Upper Canada to find land on which to settle some 70 German families. With the assistance of a group of Mennonites headed by Jacob Erb, who had settled nearby, a petition was made to the government for land in present-day Wilmot Township. Surveyed two years later by John Goessman, this German Block was peopled primarily by Amish from Europe. In 1824-25, Bishop John Stoltzfus of Pennsylvania organized the first congregation and ordained as ministers John Brenneman and Joseph Goldschmidt. Services were held in the homes of members until 1884 when a simple frame meeting house, which served until 1946, was erected.

    1 record(s) found

  • 34 First English Book of Common Prayer Published

  • 35 First Jewish Cemetery in Canada West

    In 1849, the Trustees of the Toronto Hebrew Congregation purchased a plot of land at Pape and Gerrard avenues (Leslieville), close to one of the city’s earliest Jewish immigrant communities. The land was used to establish the first Jewish cemetery in Canada West (Ontario). This purchase was spearheaded by local jeweller and optician Judah G. Joseph (1798-1857), who despaired at burying his fatally ill son in one of the nearest Jewish cemeteries at Montreal or Buffalo. The burial of Samuel Joseph is believed to be the first Jewish burial in Toronto. After acquiring the cemetery land, the Toronto Hebrew Congregation became known in 1856 as the Holy Blossom Congregation and took over the management of Pape Avenue Cemetery, by then known as Holy Blossom Cemetery. By the 1930s, the cemetery had little available burial space remaining, and the Holy Blossom Congregation created Holy Blossom Temple Memorial Park on Brimley Road as their new burying ground.

    1 record(s) found

  • 36 First Jewish Congregation in Canada West

    Regular Jewish religious services were not held in Canada West (now Ontario) until 1856 when 17 Jewish families from England and continental Europe formed a congregation known as the Toronto Hebrew Congregation – Holy Blossom. They held services in a building on the southeast corner of Yonge and Richmond streets until the construction of their first synagogue in 1876 at 25 Richmond Street East. Since its official inception in 1856, Holy Blossom Congregation has been in continuous existence to the present day.

    3 record(s) found

  • 37 First Mass celebrated in Ontario

    The first Christian missionary to reach present-day Ontario was the Récollet priest Father Joseph Le Caron (1586-1632) who accompanied Samuel de Champlain (c. 1570-1635) on his 1615 voyage to New France. Travelling by canoe and led by native guides, Le Caron made his way from Quebec City to the Huron village of Carhagouha, a few kilometres northeast of Nottawasaga Bay. Champlain, who was travelling the same route, reached Carhagouha shortly thereafter. On August 12, 1615 – in the presence of Champlain – Le Caron held mass and chanted the Te Deum. This was the first mass celebrated in present-day Ontario.

  • 38 First Mennonite Settlement

    During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, a large number of German-speaking Mennonites emigrated from Pennsylvania to Upper Canada (Ontario). Pennsylvania had become crowded with settlers, whereas the Mennonites were offered cheap land and promised exemption from military service by the colonial British government in Canada. In 1786, a small group from Bucks County, Pennsylvania settled on land west of Twenty Mile Creek in the Niagara Peninsula. In 1799, Jacob Moyer (1767-1833), Abraham Moyer and Amos Albright (1759-1833) arrived from Pennsylvania and purchased land in the vicinity of Vineland and Jordan. Within two years, the Mennonite community along the “Twenty” had grown to approximately 30 families. On the advice of their former ministers in Bucks County, the community elected Valentine Kratz the congregation's first minister in 1801. This was the first Mennonite congregation organized in Ontario. Several Mennonite communities in other parts of Ontario were founded by members of this first settlement.

    5 record(s) found

  • 39 First Publication of the Book of Mormon

  • 40 First Synod of the Presbyterian Church in Canada

    In the early 19th century, multiple Presbyterian denominations were established throughout Upper Canada (Ontario), each tied to the Presbyterian Church in Scotland. Presbyterian ministers in Upper Canada were entirely dependent on the church in Scotland for funds, administration and arbitration; they had little control over their rural missions. In 1831, 14 ministers and five representative elders of the Church of Scotland met at Kingston to establish the first Synod of the Presbyterian Church in Upper Canada (Ontario), called the Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Canada in Connection with the Church of Scotland. The Synod was thus able to appoint ministers, arbitrate local disputes and oversee the activities of the Church of Scotland in Canada, giving Presbyterian Canadian ministers a greater degree of control in their Church.

  • 41 First Unitarian Congregation in Toronto

    Following the establishment of the Unitarian Church of Montreal in 1842, the First Unitarian Congregation in Toronto was formed in 1845. Though a number of ministers for the congregation came from the United States, the Unitarian movement spread to Canada from England. The pastor of the new Toronto Unitarian Congregation was Scottish Baptist missionary Rev. William Adam (1796-1881). For several years, the congregation met in an unused Wesleyan chapel on George Street, later moving to a purpose-built church on Jarvis Street. As early as 1846, the Unitarian Congregation of Toronto adopted a constitution that, among other articles, proclaimed equality between male and female members of the congregation. A number of prominent Torontonians were members of the Unitarian Congregation, including women’s rights activist Dr. Emily Stowe (1831-1903), politician Sir Francis Hincks (1807-85) and artist Arthur Lismer (1885-1969). In 1949, the congregation moved from Jarvis Street to its present location on St. Clair Avenue West.

    1 record(s) found

  • 42 First Vatican Council

    The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX to confront perceived threats to the Roman Catholic Church – such as rationalism, liberalism and materialism. The most notable decree to emerge from the council was the assertion of papal infallibility on matters of faith and morality.

  • 43 First World War

  • 44 First Zionist Congress

  • 45 Formation of Canadian Literary Institute

    The Canadian Literary Institute was incorporated in 1857 and opened in 1860 in Woodstock, Ontario. Sponsored by prominent Baptists, the school was largely the result of its first principal, Rev. R.A. Fyfe. It was a co-educational facility, providing training in both theology and the arts. At one time, it was expected to attain full university status. In 1881, its theology faculty was moved to the Toronto Baptist College and, in 1883, it changed its name to Woodstock College.

  • 46 Formation of the Canada Presbyterian Church

    In the mid-19th century, several Presbyterian synods and groups coexisted throughout Ontario. Formed by the merger of Secessionist Presbyterian and the Relief Church in 1831, the United Presbyterian Church in Canada had close doctrinal ties to the Free Church of Scotland in Canada, formed by Evangelical Presbyterian ministers during the Great Disruption of 1844. Both United and Free Church Presbyterians argued against the patronage system used by the Church of Scotland to match newly licensed ministers with congregations. In 1861, the Free Church of Scotland in Canada and the United Presbyterian Church amalgamated to form the Canada Presbyterian Church. This body became the dominant Presbyterian group in the Canadas, part of a gradual consolidation of Presbyterians in Canada leading to the formation of the Presbyterian Church in Canada in 1875.

  • 47 Formation of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Canada

    In the 19th century, congregations of the Evangelical Church were organized into synods, based throughout the United States. As the Lutheran population of Canada grew, its congregations remained relatively small and were concentrated in German-speaking communities like Berlin (i.e., Kitchener), so that Canadian Lutherans were grouped into existing American synods. In July 1861, Lutherans in eastern Canada, formerly part of the Canadian Conference of the Pittsburgh Synod, organized the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Canada (Canada Synod). The Synod was founded at the Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church in Vaughan, a church established by German-speaking settlers from Pennsylvania. The Canada Synod slowly took control of affairs in Lutheran churches in the Maritimes and Central Canada, while still part of the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America. In 1962, the Canada Synod was reorganized as the Eastern Canada Synod of the Lutheran Church in America.

  • 48 Formation of the Methodist Church in Canada

    Established in 1884, the Methodist Church was the largest Protestant denomination in Canada during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Its formation marked the culmination of a long series of mergers between groups of British and American origin. Methodism had been established in Canada in 1791 when the Methodist Episcopal Church of Baltimore sent missionaries to Upper Canada (Ontario). The first union of Methodist congregations in Canada occurred in 1874 when the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Canada united with the Methodist New Connexion Church of Canada to form the Methodist Church in Canada. At their general conferences held in 1882, representatives of the Methodist Church of Canada, Methodist Episcopal, Primitive Methodist and Bible Christian Churches approved the formation of a joint committee to prepare a Basis for Union. On July 1, 1884, the four groups formally amalgamated to form the Methodist Church in Canada.

    30 record(s) found

  • 49 Formation of the World Union for Progressive Judaism

  • 50 Founding of Beth Tzedec Congregation

    In the early 1880s, a series of anti-Semitic pogroms in Russia and Eastern Europe fuelled Jewish emigration to Toronto. Rather than join the existing synagogue (Holy Blossom Temple, a Reform Judaism congregation), many of these newcomers chose to form their own Orthodox congregations. In 1883, the Goel Tzedec congregation was established by Lithuanians, with members meeting in a rented property on Richmond Street. Also formed that year was the Beth Hamidrash Hagadol Chevra Tehilla congregation, serving Toronto’s Russian Jewish population. These congregations provided an Orthodox alternative for newly arrived Jewish immigrants, who wanted to maintain the worship traditions of their homeland rather than immerse themselves in Holy Blossom’s Reform practices. With the growth of Toronto’s Jewish community and its integration into Canada society, however, both congregations made changes in order to retain their membership. In 1925, Goel Tzedec began introducing elements of Conservative Judaism – with the introduction of family pews, a revised prayer book, English prayers and the Bat Mitzvah. Beth Tzedec, Toronto’s largest Conservative synagogue, was formed in 1952 by the amalgamation of the Goel Tzedec and Beth Hamidrash Hagadol congregations in order to conserve resources and maintain a steady membership.

  • 51 Founding of Congregation Anshei Minsk

    The Beth Israel Anshei Minsk congregation, also known as the "Minsker," was established by 1912 in Toronto’s Kensington Market district. The congregation was formed to serve a growing number of Jewish immigrants from the Belarusian region of the Russian Empire who had arrived in Toronto at the turn of the century. Many of these Jewish immigrants had fled the pogroms, a series of anti-Semitic riots throughout Russia from 1903-06 that resulted in the restriction of Jewish life, worship and commerce. Anshei Minsk was one of a number of Orthodox synagogues established in Toronto by eastern European immigrants in the early 1900s. The congregation began as a Shtibl, meeting in private homes until 1923, when the Ladies Auxiliary Association began fundraising for a new building. Rabbi Meyer Levy (1872-19??) arrived in 1916 to serve the new congregation. The synagogue, designed by architectural firm Kaplan & Sprachman, was completed in 1930. This Orthodox congregation continues today, though many Jewish families have relocated and the neighbourhood has become part of Toronto’s Chinatown district. The congregation remains the only synagogue in Toronto with daily worship services.

  • 52 Founding of Hasidic Judaism

  • 53 Founding of Holy Blossom Temple

    Toronto’s oldest Jewish congregation began with the establishment of a cemetery. In 1849, Abraham Nordheimer (1816-62) and Judah G. Joseph (1798-1857) purchased land on Pape Avenue for use by Toronto’s Jewish population. This meant that Jewish residents could bury their dead in accordance with the Torah, encouraging Jews to settle permanently in Toronto. In 1856, the Sons of Israel Congregation was established, the first organized Jewish congregation in Canada west of Montreal. In 1858, the congregation was renamed the Toronto Hebrew Congregation – Holy Blossom. A Cheder (Hebrew school) was established in 1859, and the congregation built its first synagogue in 1876 on Richmond Street. Holy Blossom’s numbers swelled with the arrival of Eastern European immigrants, many of whom had fled anti-Semitic Russian pogroms in 1881-84. A new synagogue was constructed in 1897 on Bond Street to house the congregation of 116 families. By the end of the 19th century, Holy Blossom had made changes to its services and become a Reform congregation, leading to the formation of Conservative and Orthodox Judaism congregations in Toronto, including Goel Tzedec (1883) and Beth Jacob (1889). During the height of the Great Depression (1929-39), the congregation grew to 250 member families, and a new synagogue was constructed on Bathurst Street in 1938. Holy Blossom continues today as one of Toronto’s leading Jewish congregations, with more than 7,000 members.

    1 record(s) found

  • 54 Founding of Jami Mosque

    As a result of increased demand for labour in the post-Second World War Canadian economy and gradual relaxing of long-standing racial barriers to immigration, large numbers of South Asian immigrants began to arrive in the Greater Toronto Area throughout the 1960s. Until then, Muslim services in Toronto were performed in private homes or rented facilities, in the absence of a permanent place of worship. In 1969, a group of Muslims in Toronto purchased the vacant High Park Presbyterian Church and renamed it Jami Mosque. Although the masjid (mosque) initially faced financial problems, the Islamic Services of Canada charitable trust was soon established by the University of Toronto’s Muslim Students’ Association to own and manage the property. Several mosques throughout the Greater Toronto Area originated at Jami, which is known within the local Muslim community as Umm Al-Masjid (the mother of all the mosques) in Toronto.

    1 record(s) found

  • 55 Founding of Jehovah's Witnesses

    In 1871, Charles Taze Russell founded a Bible study group that became known as Zion’s Watch Tower Tract Society. In 1931, they adopted the name Jehovah’s Witnesses.

  • 56 Founding of Knesseth Israel Synagogue

    Established in 1909 by Russian Jewish immigrants, Toronto’s Knesseth Israel Synagogue initially held services in a private home on Maria Road. The congregation was founded by Jewish refugees of anti-semitic pogroms in Russia (1903-06) who settled in The Junction neighbourhood of Toronto due to its busy commercial activity. In 1910, the trustees of the congregation purchased a plot of land in an existing cemetery on Royal York Road, and construction of the Maria Street synagogue was begun in 1911. The establishment of Knesseth Israel, known locally as The Junction Schule, fuelled a rise in Jewish settlement in the area, with nearly 200 Jewish residents in The Junction by 1920. From 1924-39, Rabbi Mordecai Lagner led the congregation and was Knesseth Israel’s only fulltime rabbi. Following the Second World War (1939-45), many congregation members left the area and relocated north of the city; services were only offered on high holidays. Knesseth Israel continues today, albeit on a smaller scale, as one of the oldest operating synagogues in Toronto.

    1 record(s) found

  • 57 Founding of Knox College

    Following the controversy in the Church of Scotland in 1843, and because the Presbyterian Seminary at Queen’s in Kingston decided to remain with the Church of Scotland, a number of students left the seminary and sought to create their own education centre for Presbyterians that followed the ideals of the Free Church of Scotland. In 1844, they founded Knox College in Toronto. In November of that year, the first class of 14 students began training in the home of John Esson before moving to a larger building in 1846. In 1875, they moved to the building at Spadina Crescent and, finally in 1914, to the current building on St. George Street in Toronto.

  • 58 Founding of Queen's Theological College

    By the mid-19th century, the Presbyterian community in Canada was growing exponentially as a result of Scottish and American immigration. There was a need for trained, licensed Presbyterian preachers throughout Canada West (Ontario). In 1841, a seminary and college was established at Kingston with a charter from Queen Victoria (1837-1901). Queen’s College began under Rev. Thomas Liddell (1800-80), with only 15 students. The Faculty of Theology was a training ground for Moderate Presbyterian ministers, allied to the Church of Scotland. In 1844, with the Great Disruption and splintering of the Church into the Presbyterian Church of Canada in Connexion with the Church of Scotland and the Free Church in Canada, some of the theological students left the College to form Knox College in Toronto. In 1912, Queen’s University separated from the Faculty of Theology in order to become eligible for provincial funding, and the small seminary was renamed Queen’s Theological College. In 1925, the Theological College allied its students and teachings with the newly formed United Church of Canada. The college remains closely tied with Queen’s University, allowing the Senate of the University to confer degrees on college graduates.

  • 59 Founding of Temple Anshe Sholom

    In 1853, a group of German-born Jewish residents from Hamilton, Ontario gathered together to form the Hebrew Benevolent Society Anshe Sholom. Initially a social service society, Anshe Sholom began holding religious services in 1856. Land was purchased for a cemetery and, in 1863, the “Jewish Congregation Anshe Sholom of Hamilton” was officially formed with 19 members. Anshe Sholom services were held in private homes or businesses until, in 1882, a synagogue was built and referred to as the Hughson Street Temple. Under the leadership of President Edmund Scheuer (1847-1943), the congregation began to adopt the practices of Reform Judaism, introducing English-language services, removing the separate gallery for women, and using modern music in services. Throughout the early 20th century, Anshe Sholom continued to maintain a steady membership, despite the establishment of Conservative and Orthodox congregations in Hamilton. In 1952, the downtown synagogue was closed and a new temple erected west of Hamilton, to support the shift of the congregation to the suburbs.

  • 60 Founding of the Canadian Friends Service Committee

    Founded in 1931, the Canadian Friends Service Committee conducted social service and peach outreach activities for the Canadian Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). Quakers had long been opposed to military service, based on the Peace Testimony, a shared ideology that instructed Quakers to promote peace and actively oppose participation in war. The Quakers’ pacifist beliefs were initially acknowledged with the Militia Act of 1793, and upheld during the First World War (1914-18), exempting the Friends from conscription. The Friends in Ontario provided medical and refugee support during the war, fundraising for and operating the Friends Ambulance Unit and War Victims Relief Committee of the Society of Friends in Europe. As an outgrowth of these efforts and the Quakers, the Canadian Friends Service Committee was established in 1931, collecting funds from Canadians for distribution to international aid and peace societies. The Committee endorsed the practice of international cooperation laid out by the League of Nations, but recommended economic sanctions as a means toward peace. The Committee continues today as an advocacy group for international economic cooperation, environmental concerns, sustainability and peace-building.

  • 61 Founding of the Canadian Jewish Congress

    The Canadian Jewish Congress was established in 1919 as a democratic Jewish representative body based on a sense of shared culture and community and a concern for the welfare of Jewish minority groups in Europe following the First World War (1914-18). The Congress created the Jewish Immigrant Aid Society in 1919 in anticipation of mass Jewish emigration to Canada. The Congress became inactive during the 1920s, but saw resurgence during the rise of anti-Semitism worldwide during the early 1930s, particularly in Germany with the rise of the Nazi Party. Despite the Canadian government’s restriction of Jewish immigration in the late 1930s, the Congress lobbied for the acceptance of Jews fleeing from Europe. Following the war, the Congress played a leading role in gathering and funnelling funds, supplies and aid to Holocaust survivors in Europe, and sponsoring young Jewish immigrants. The Congress also lobbied the Canadian government to prosecute Nazi war criminals living in Canada during the 1980s. In recent years, the Congress has broadened its mandate to include non-Jewish groups, providing support for refugees worldwide and promoting anti-racism campaigns.

  • 62 Founding of the Canadian Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends

    Following the Great Separation of 1828 and the Wilburite Separation in 1881, Canadian Friends had split into three groups – the Genesee Yearly Meeting (Hicksite), Canada Yearly Meeting of Conservative Friends (Wilburite) and Canada Yearly Meeting of Progressive Friends (Orthodox). By the end of the First World War (1914-18), many called for a Quaker reunion due to the decline in membership and close doctrinal similarities between the denominations. Delegates from each group began attending the others’ meetings and, in 1921, the Pelham Brick Church Meeting invited the local Genesee Yearly Meeting to use their meeting house for services. With the onset of the Great Depression (1929-38), the separated Friends groups banded together to raise funds and provide medical aid and social services, forming the Canadian Friends Service Committee in 1931. In 1944, the Conservative, Hicksite and Wilburite Friends held concurrent Yearly Meetings in Pickering and established a Committee on Closer Affiliation to examine the question of reunion. Though met with some opposition, the three Quaker denominations were reunited in 1954 as the Canadian Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends. They held their first joint service at Newmarket in 1955.

  • 63 Founding of the Children of Peace

    Established by David Willson (1778-1866), the Children of Peace was an offshoot of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and included well-known musicians and political advocates. Willson immigrated to Canada from New York in 1801, and soon joined the Monthly Meeting at Upper Yonge Street (today, Newmarket). In 1812, Willson was expelled from the Friends for his interpretation of the Bible and desire to include music in religious services. He was joined by a number of followers, called Davidites, and established the Children of Peace in nearby Hope (today, Sharon in East Gwillimbury). The Children became well known for their instrumental band (the first civilian musical group organized in Canada) and their youthful singing chorus, who travelled with Willson to York (Toronto) and Philadelphia. A meeting house (1819), study (1819) and Temple (1825-31) were erected in Sharon, while the establishment of a credit union and shared-land system brought prosperity to the Davidite farmers. The Children were also active supporters of William Lyon Mackenzie (1795-1861), campaigning for his election as representative of their riding and later supporting the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837. After Willson’s death in 1866, the membership and activity of the Children began to diminish, with the last service held at the Sharon Temple in 1899.

    1 record(s) found

  • 64 Founding of the Church of England

  • 65 Founding of the Deborah Ladies' Aid Society

    Formed in 1870 by members of Temple Anshe Sholom in Hamilton, the Deborah Ladies’ Aid Society was the first Jewish women’s philanthropic group in Canada. Led by Camilla Scheuer (1845-1916), sister of Jewish community leader Edmund Scheuer, the Society eventually became an auxiliary of Anshe Sholom. Initially, the Society raised funds to support the less fortunate of Hamilton’s Jewish community, largely composed of German-speaking Jews. With the increasing influx of Russian and eastern European Jewish immigrants following the outbreak of anti-Semitic pogroms in Russia in 1881-84, the Society broadened their outreach to include the new arrivals. The Society continued to expand during the 20th century, shifting its focus from immigrants toward supporting activities at Anshe Sholom, the Cheder (Hebrew school) and education and settlement outreach efforts to Hamilton’s Jewish population. The Society was later renamed the Deborah Sisterhood, and remains active in the community and within Anshe Sholom.

  • 66 Founding of the first Black Baptist congregation

    The Baptist Church in Colchester (Essex County) was the first Black Baptist Congregation, organized in October 1821. It was founded by Elder William Wilks, who came from the United States in 1818.

  • 67 Founding of the First Congregationalist Church in Upper Canada

    The first Congregational Church in Upper Canada (now Ontario) was gathered by Joseph Silcox in the town of Frome in 1819. Silcox had come from Wiltshire, England and followed the independent stream of Congregationalism.

    1 record(s) found

  • 68 Founding of the Hindu Prarthana Samaj

    As a result of the gradual relaxing of racial barriers to immigration and the introduction of a points-based immigrant qualification system in 1967, large numbers of South Asian immigrants began to arrive in the Greater Toronto Area. Prior to the late 1960s, organized Hindu services in Toronto were held in private homes and rented spaces, including a Christian church on Queen Street West. In 1967, the Hindu Prarthana Samaj settled at 62 Fern Avenue in Toronto, becoming the first organized Hindu congregation in Ontario. While this congregation initially provided services to all nationalities of Hindus, a number of temples were established during the 1970s and 1980s to cater to West Indian, African-Indian, South Indian, Malaysian and Singaporean Hindu communities. The Hindu Prarthana Samaj continues to offer Hindu services, and is the oldest Hindu temple and congregation in Ontario.

  • 69 Founding of the Ladies' Montefiore Society

    In 1878, members of the Holy Blossom Temple formed the first Jewish women’s social service group in Toronto – the Ladies’ Montefiore Benevolent Society. Initially, the group had little charitable activity, given the small size and relative wealth of Toronto’s Jewish community. With the arrival of Russian and Eastern European immigrant Jews fleeing anti-Semitic pogroms (1881-84), the need for settlement services and fundraising grew. Members of the Society visited the sick, taught sewing and raised funds to provide support to poor immigrants. This institution arose from a Victorian-era moral and religious revival among the affluent of England and North America, with the goal of improving the lives of the less fortunate through charitable and spiritual care. In 1916, the Society became affiliated with the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies in New York City.

  • 70 Founding of the Presbyterian General Assembly

    Prior to the 1875 formation of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, various synods and presbyteries across the country met regularly to decide on theological, legal and administrative matters. With the Presbyterian Union, an annual General Assembly was established, composed of one-sixth of the number of ministers in Canada, as well as church elders, Presbyterian youth representatives and theological students. At the 1925 General Assembly, 79 Commissioners voted against joining the United Church of Canada, electing to remain with the Presbyterian Church as Continuing Presbyterians. In 1966, the General Assembly passed an act making women eligible for ordination. Today, the General Assembly acts as the highest council of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, with annual meetings during the month of June. The assembly reviews and disposes of petitions, overtures, references, complaints and appeals from other courts of the church, passing acts that determine the policy and actions of the Church.

  • 71 Founding of the Presbytery of the Canadas

    In 1817, there were nine Presbyterian ministers in Upper Canada (Ontario), working in often inhospitable conditions with little available support from the Church of Scotland. There was no formally organized local court for the debate and approval of theological and logistical decisions, forcing ministers to appeal to Scotland or the United States. In 1818, Rev. William Bell (1780-1857), Rev. William Taylor, Rev. William Smart (1788-18??) and Rev. Robert Easton (1773-1831) applied for permission to form a presbytery, but decided to organize the Presbytery of the Canadas as an independent body with no official ties to the Church of Scotland. This would allow congregations of non-Scottish ancestry and ministers from other Presbyterian churches – including the Dutch Reformed Church – to amalgamate smoothly into the new association. After an initial meeting in Cornwall, the ministers met at St. Peter’s Church in Montreal and agreed that this new presbytery would recognize the doctrine and discipline of the Church of Scotland. The Presbytery was later absorbed into the Presbyterian Church of Canada in Connection with the Church of Scotland (1839), leading toward the formation of the Presbyterian Church in Canada in 1875.

  • 72 Founding of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)

  • 73 Founding of the Salvation Army

    In 1865, William and Catherine Booth founded the East London Christian Mission. The organization was renamed the Salvation Army in 1878.

  • 74 Founding of the Shiromani Sikh Society

    The growth of the Toronto Sikh community began slowly, with members of the larger Sikh settlements in Vancouver, British Columbia making their way east in the mid-1950s. By 1965, there were at least 400 Sikhs living in the Greater Toronto Area; monthly religious services were held in an Eglinton Avenue community centre. In 1969, the quincentenary of the birth of Guru Nanak (1469-1539), founder of the Sikh faith, Sardar Jimiyat Singh Gill led the establishment of the Shiromani Sikh Society. The Society established the first Sikh gurdwara (temple) in Toronto. It is still located at 269 Pape Avenue.

  • 75 Founding of the Sisters of Charity in Ottawa

    In 1845, Father Adrien Telmon of Bytown (Ottawa) petitioned Bishop Patrick Phelan of Kingston (1795-1857) to establish an order of the Sisters of Charity in the city to provide medical and social services lacking in the community. Led by Mother Elizabeth Bruyère (1818-76), the Montreal-based sisters travelled to Bytown that year. The Sisters were commonly known as the “Grey Nuns,” in reference to the colour of their habits. The Sisters in Bytown were initially a small group of six, and continued to follow guidelines set out by the Grey Nuns of the Hôpital Général of Montreal. The Sisters of Charity opened a bilingual school for girls in 1845 and St. Joseph’s Orphanage in 1865. Soon, the order in Bytown began to grow as new postulants were admitted in 1846 and land was purchased to enlarge the hospital. In 1856, Father Pierre Aubert (1819-90) wrote a new Rule for the Sisters of Charity in Ottawa, formally separating the Ottawa group from the control of the Montreal order.

  • 76 Founding of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order)

  • 77 Founding of the State of Israel

  • 78 Founding of the Toronto Baptist College

    In 1881, William McMaster – a wealthy merchant, banker and Senator of the Dominion of Canada – urged the creation of a Baptist theological school related to the Canadian Literary Institute, which was located in Woodstock, Ontario and had been founded by prominent Baptists. McMaster was generous in his financial support of the new school, called Toronto Baptist College. The College prospered with a growing student body and a useful affiliation with the University of Toronto. Toronto Baptist College was a theological school that stressed the missionary and pastoral labours of its students. In 1887, the College was united with Woodstock College to form McMaster University, which moved to Hamilton in 1930. The original buildings now house the Toronto’s Royal Conservatory of Music on Bloor Street West.

  • 79 Founding of the United Church of Canada

    The United Church of Canada was formed on June 10, 1925 in Toronto through the union of the Methodist Church of Canada, the Congregational Union of Canada and the Presbyterian Church of Canada. The General Council of Union Churches, centred largely in Western Canada, joined at this time as well. This union set out the doctrinal and organizational basis for the union. It was the first union of churches in the world to cross historical denominational lines and hence received international acclaim. Though the merger was successful, about 30 per cent of the Presbyterian congregations rejected union and continue today as the Presbyterian Church of Canada.

    134 record(s) found

  • 80 Founding of the University of St. Michael's College

    In 1852, this college was established as a Roman Catholic boys' school in the palace of the Right Reverend Armand, Comte de Charbonnel, Bishop of Toronto and a vigorous opponent of the public school system in Canada West. The minor seminary opened by Basilian priests that year was combined with the school in 1853 and, in 1855, St Michael’s College was incorporated. A new collegiate structure and the adjoining parish church of St. Basil’s were built here on Clover Hill. On September 15, 1856, classes commenced with the Rev. Jean Mathieu Soulerin, C.S.B., as superior. The college progressed gradually. In 1881, it affiliated with the University of Toronto. St. Michael’s formally became an arts college within the university in 1910.

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  • 81 Founding of Trinity College

    Trinity College was founded by the Anglican Bishop of Toronto, John Strachan, in 1851 as an alternative to the secular University of Toronto. Strachan had received a royal charter more than two decades earlier to create King’s College – the first institution of higher learning in what is now Ontario; he became its first president. In 1849, after much debate, the newly elected responsible government of Canada West (Ontario) decided to make King’s College public – divesting it of its ties to the Anglican Church – and to rename it the University of Toronto. In response, Strachan withdrew his support for the school and obtained a royal charter to create a new university. Initially, Trinity College was a private, Anglican university devoted to training the province’s elite. Throughout the later decades of the 19th century, however, Trinity became increasingly inclusive and its academic program expanded. In 1904, Trinity joined with the University of Toronto and, in 1925, moved from its original location on Queen Street West to the University of Toronto’s St. George campus. There the Trinity College Chapel was constructed in 1955. The smallest college in the University of Toronto federation, Trinity is renowned for its tradition of academic excellence.

  • 82 Founding of Wycliffe College

    Wycliffe College was founded in 1877 to prepare men of evangelical conviction for the Anglican ministry. Four years earlier, a group of Anglican clergy and laity committed to evangelical principles had formed the Church Association of the Diocese of Toronto. This Association brought a noted theologian and administrator, the Reverend James Paterson Sheraton, from Nova Scotia to establish the Protestant Episcopal Divinity School and serve as its principal and first professor. It opened on October 1, 1877 in St James’ Cathedral Schoolhouse in Toronto. In 1882, it moved to a newly constructed building on College Street near the University of Toronto. The school, renamed Wycliffe College in 1885, federated with the University of Toronto in 1889 and moved to its present location on Hoskin Avenue in 1891.

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  • 83 French Revolution

  • 84 French Wars of Religion

  • 85 Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

    Known as the bloodhound law for the dogs used to chase freedom-seeking slaves, the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 made federal officials throughout the United States (including free states) legally bound to return runaway slaves to their masters and provide financial rewards for those who did. Furthermore, any person aiding a runaway slave could be subject to imprisonment or a fine of up to $1,000.

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  • 86 German Unification

  • 87 Gordon Riots

    The Gordon Riots were highly destructive and deadly anti-Catholic riots that occurred in London, England in 1780.

  • 88 Grand Mosque Seizure

  • 89 Great Depression

  • 90 Great Irish Famine

  • 91 Greek War of Independence

  • 92 Hudson's Bay Company receives Royal Charter

  • 93 Immigration Act of 1976

    The Immigration Act of 1976 was created to foster immigration that would strengthen Canada’s economic development and eliminate outdated discriminatory immigration policy. Another aim of the act was to promote immigration that would reunite families. To this end, four categories of immigrants were defined: refugees, families, assisted relatives and independent immigrants. All but the independent immigrants were exempt from applying for citizenship through the points system established by the federal government in 1967. In 2001, the act was replaced by the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act.

  • 94 Iranian Revolution

  • 95 Iroquois Wars

    Throughout the 17th century, a series of conflicts – often called the Iroquois Wars or Beaver Wars – pitted the Five Nations Iroquois Confederacy against several of their neighbouring tribes as well as the French. The Confederacy, armed by their Dutch and English trading partners, broke and dispersed all surrounding native groups in an effort to expand their territory and control the fur trade in the Great Lakes region and Ohio Valley. The wars concluded with the Great Peace of Montreal, signed by the French and 40 First Nations groups in 1701.

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  • 96 Jacques Cartier erects cross in the Gaspésie

  • 97 Jesuit Mission of the Assumption at La Pointe de Montreal

    The Jesuit Mission of the Assumption at La Pointe de Montréal (Windsor) in western New France (Ontario) was established to serve the local Huron population in 1749. In 1702, French fur trader Antoine Laumet de la Mothe, sieur de Cadillac (1658-1730) established Fort Pontchartrain (Detroit) on the Detroit River. Cadillac invited the Huron of Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City) to relocate to his newly established community in order to increase the French presence in the Great Lakes region. In 1728, the Jesuits established a mission in a Huron village near Pontchartrain. The Huron settlement was relocated to Bois Blanc (Boblo) Island in 1742, at the mouth of the Detroit River. In 1747, a group of Iroquois and disaffected Huron unhappy with the community’s relocation attacked the Bois Blanc mission and burned the settlement. At the same time, the French government was anxious to increase its presence on the Detroit River to defend its territory from the English and offered land on the south shore to settlers, who soon formed the community of La Petite Côte. In 1749, the Bois Blanc Jesuits were granted land and funds from the French Crown to re-establish the Huron mission. The Jesuits chose La Pointe de Montréal, near Petite Côte, for the new Mission of the Assumption. Despite the fall of New France to the British during the Seven Years War (1756-63), La Petite Côte maintained sizeable French-speaking populations. The mission became the Parish of Assumption in 1767, the oldest Roman Catholic parish west of Montreal.

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  • 98 Jesuit Mission to Manitoulin 1648-50

    The Jesuit Mission of St. Pierre on Manitoulin Island was established in 1648 in order to reach the Algonkian-speaking First Nations of Lake Huron’s north shore. Father Joseph Poncet (1610-75) was the first known European resident of Manitoulin Island – then called Ile de Ste. Marie by the missionaries and Ekaentoton by the Huron (Wendat). It is not known in what part of the island he worked, but it is understood that he journeyed from village to village to meet and convert the Huron to Christianity. As Huron communities across Upper Canada became split between converts to Christianity and those maintaining traditional Huron spiritual beliefs, the Huron of Manitoulin Island were similarly divided. Poncet returned to the Sainte-Marie Among the Hurons mission (Midland) in May 1649 in the midst of ongoing attacks on the Huron by the Iroquois. Weakened by European diseases and internal conflicts over the increasing influence of the Jesuits, the Huron could not withstand the superior weapons of the Iroquois. In June 1649, the Jesuit priests and their followers burned Sainte-Marie and abandoned the site in anticipation of further Iroquois attacks. Poncet returned to Manitoulin in the fall of 1649 to continue the mission, but abandoned it to join the remaining Sainte-Marie priests as they fled by canoe for Quebec in June 1650.

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  • 99 Jewish Emancipation in 1832

    In the early 19th century, Jewish residents of Canada were unable to obtain legal status as citizens, and were not allowed to serve as elected officials. This discrepancy was exacerbated by the “Hart Affair,” when Jewish businessman Ezekiel Hart (1767-1843) of Trois-Rivières, Quebec was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada in 1807. Hart was dismissed from the Assembly over his inability to swear the oath of office “as a true Christian.” He was re-elected in 1808, swore the Christian oath, but despite voter support in his riding was dismissed again. The right of Jews to keep and legally use birth, death and marriage records brought Jewish religious rights in Canada to the forefront in 1832. Faced with a petition for equal rights from Jewish community leaders and businessmen, the Parliament of Lower Canada passed “An Act to Grant Equal Rights and Privileges to Persons of the Jewish Religion” in 1832. When Upper and Lower Canada were joined in 1841 to form the United Province of Canada, this legislation became effective in Canada West (Ontario). The act was the first in the British Empire to provide equal rights to Jewish citizens, and a major step forward in guaranteeing universal religious freedom in Canada.

  • 100 Jewish Settlement at Kirkland Lake

    With the growth of natural resource industries in northern Ontario in the early 20th century, many immigrants to Canada found their way north, seeking employment and creating unique settler communities throughout the province. Jewish immigrants fleeing anti-Semitic Eastern European pogroms in 1903-06 were drawn to Kirkland Lake by work on the Northern Ontario Railroad and nearby gold mines. By 1912, a Jewish cemetery had been established at Kirkesdorf near Kirkland Lake. Despite harsh economic conditions during the Great Depression (1929-39), the establishment of a new gold standard of $35 per ounce in 1933 by American President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) meant prosperity for many residents of Kirkland Lake. Jewish settlers became prominent businessmen and merchants, providing essential services to residents of the mining boomtown. The Jewish community grew to nearly 125 families by 1937. Jewish service organizations, including a Hadassah chapter and B’nai Brith, were established. In 1929, the Adath Israel Synagogue was opened. After the Second World War (1939-45), gold mining activity decreased in Kirkland Lake, and many residents moved to larger urban centres. By 1967, only five Jewish families remained in the town, and the synagogue was closed in 1980.

  • 101 John and Charles Wesley establish General Rules

    In 1743, John and Charles Wesley compiled a set of General Rules that reflected their methodological approach to Christian devotion. This became the nucleus of Methodism.

  • 102 Kenté (Quinte) Mission

    The mission at Kenté (Quinte) was established in 1668 by priests from the Order of St. Sulpice, based in Ville-Marie (Montreal). In 1649-50, the Five Nations Iroquois attacked and defeated their Huron enemies, and Iroquois communities expanded into the Great Lakes region. By 1665, Iroquois bands had established villages on the north side of Lake Ontario, including a Cayuga Nation settlement called “Kentio” by the Iroquois and “Kenté” by the French. In 1668, Claude Trouvé (1644-1704) and François de Fénelon (1641-79), Sulpician priests who had studied the Cayuga language, established a mission at Kenté. Buildings were erected in the village and livestock brought from Ville-Marie (Montreal). Letters written by missionaries indicate that their Christianizing efforts met with indifferent success at best. Following the establishment of nearby Fort Frontenac (Kingston) in 1673, the Kenté Mission collapsed due to heavy costs and the gradual dispersal of the Iroquois from Kenté in search of new hunting grounds. The mission was abandoned in 1680.

  • 103 Khalsa established in Sikh Faith

  • 104 King James version of the Bible published

  • 105 Korean War

  • 106 Lord's Day Act 1906

    The Presbyterian Lord's Day Alliance was formed in 1888. With the support of the French-Canadian Roman Catholic clergy, they convinced Sir Wilfrid Laurier to pass the Lord's Day Act in 1906 (it became law in 1907). The act restricted trade, labour and recreation on Sundays. In 1985, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the Lord's Day Act of 1906 was an unconstitutional violation of The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and was therefore invalid.

  • 107 Martin Luther writes the Ninety-Five Theses

    The Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences was a repudiation of clerical abuses written by Martin Luther in 1517. It is considered to be the catalyst for the Protestant Reformation.

  • 108 Militia Act of 1793

    The first protection for those objecting to compulsory military service was provided by John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. This promise became law with the Militia Act of 1793, which stated: ... and it be further enacted, that the persons called Quakers, Mennonites, and Tunkers, who from certain scruples of conscience, decline bearing arms, shall not be compelled to serve in the said Militia. For this exemption, they were compelled by law to pay a yearly tax, which increased in times of war. If unpaid, those exempted from the militia had their property confiscated. After 1809, if fines for unpaid taxes were not paid, a jail term could result.

  • 109 Mission of the Immaculate Conception

    The Mission of the Immaculate Conception was founded in 1849 on the banks of the Kaministiquia River by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in order to visit and convert First Nations communities along the north shore of Lake Superior in Canada West (Ontario). Competition for furs had depleted resources of the area, which pushed the fur trade further north and west and seriously affected the hunting practises and income of the Ojibwa. In 1849, two Jesuit priests – Father Jean-Pierre Choné (1808-78) and Father Nicholas Frémiot (1818-54) – established the Mission of the Immaculate Conception on the Kaministiquia River. From there, Jesuit missionaries travelled the north shore of Lake Superior, encouraging First Nations groups to settle rather than continue their traditional nomadic lifestyle. The Jesuits also supported Ojibwa demands for compensation for First Nations lands acquired by the Crown in the region. After the site was purchased in 1908 by the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, the mission was moved to the nearby Fort William First Nation Reserve. In 1972, the last of the mission buildings on the original site were destroyed by fire.

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  • 110 Norwich Quaker Settlement

    In 1809, Peter Lossing – a member of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) – came to Upper Canada from Dutchess County, New York. William Willcocks deeded 15,000 acres (6,070 hectares) of land in Norwich to Lossing and his brother-in-law Peter De Long in 1810. The purchasers returned to Dutchess County to recruit settlers and bring their families to Upper Canada. In 1811, the Lossing and De Long families settled on land they purchased. By 1820, a group of about 60 had settled within the tract. The arrival of the Quaker settlers in 1811 marked the beginning of progress in Norwich Township – building stores, schools and mills and operating successful dairy farms. Lossing reserved a small plot of land to construct a Quaker meeting house, which was erected in 1817.

    1 record(s) found

  • 111 Ordination of Women by the Anglican Church

    Women had long played active roles within the Anglican Church of Canada prior to the Church’s ordination of female priests. Especially after the Second World War, a plethora of local women’s groups were formed in parishes throughout the country. Influenced by the burgeoning women’s rights movement, the Anglican Church of Canada began to rethink the nature of its Church structures during the 1960s. Many within the Church wanted to move toward a Church model that would see men and women working together and include women as full and equal partners in all levels of ecclesiastical life. This sentiment was echoed by many within the worldwide Anglican Communion and, at the 1968 Lambeth Conference, bishops from around the world supported the ordination of women to the diaconate. This position was officially adopted by the Anglican Church of Canada the following year. In 1975, after much debate and consultation the General Synod of the Church of Canada passed resolutions allowing the ordination of women to the priesthood. On November 30, 1976 six women were ordained priests of the Anglican Church of Canada. Three of these ordinations occurred in Ontario: Rev. Mary Mills at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London and Revs. Mary Lucas and Beverley Shanley at Grace Church in St. Catharines.

    2 record(s) found

  • 112 Ordination of Women by the Presbyterian Church in Canada

    Women had long been recognized for their contributions to Presbyterian life as lay preachers, educators, administrators and fundraisers, but had been excluded from official designation by the church to lead others in prayer. With the growth of the women’s rights movement in post-Second World War North America (1939-45), Presbyterian leaders in Canada began seriously to debate the ordination of women. In 1953, the Committee on the Place of Women in the Church was formed to interview leaders of each Canadian presbytery on the ordination of women, but was met with mostly negative feedback. Despite this, in 1966, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Canada passed an act enabling women to be eligible for ordination. In Appin, Ontario, Rev. Shirley Jeffrey became the first female minister ordained to the ministry of Word and Sacrament by the Presbyterian Church in Canada in 1968. The ordination of women by the Presbyterian Church was a major change for many congregations and ministers, and the General Assembly continued to receive petitions against the ordination of women well into the 1980s. Gradually, however, female ministers have become increasingly common and accepted within the Presbyterian Church.

  • 113 Organization of the Islamic Conference established

    The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an international Islamic organization comprised of 57 member states. Its mandate is to protect and uphold Islamic values while promoting global peace, tolerance and solidarity in conformity with Islamic teachings. The OIC is represented by a permanent delegation to the United Nations.

  • 114 Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople

  • 115 Partition of India

  • 116 Peace movement

    Since the 18th century, individual Canadians and non-governmental organizations have been active supporters of the cessation of armed conflict, or the peace movement. Following the American Revolution (1775-83), pacifist Quaker and Mennonite settlers from Pennsylvania and Maryland emigrated to Upper Canada (Ontario) to escape compulsory military service. During the mid- to late 20th century, the peace movement shifted from an individual or minority adoption of neutrality toward vocal efforts by activists to persuade the Canadian public and authorities to promote and practise peace in global relations. The peace movement became increasingly tied to other forms of activism, including women’s and children’s rights and the environmental movement. In the 1970s and 1980s, large umbrella organizations were developed to connect and oversee existing, smaller peace movement groups. These groups actively fundraise to support overseas medical, faith, construction and infrastructure projects, peace and global education in Canada, and federal and provincial lobby efforts.

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  • 117 Peace of Westphalia

    The Peace of Westphalia is a series of peace treaties, signed between 1648 and 1659, that ended the European Wars of Religion (Thirty Years’ War, Eighty Years’ War and Franco-Spanish War). The treaties redrew several political boundaries and reconstituted the vast Holy Roman Empire. Protestants and Catholics within the empire were defined as equal before the law and the ruler of each imperial state was given the right to choose their state’s religion.

  • 118 Presbyterian Church Union of 1875

    In 1875, there were four major Presbyterian groups in Canada: the Canada Presbyterian Church, the Free Church of Scotland in Canada, the Synod of the Presbyterian Church of the Maritime Provinces of British North America, and the Presbyterian Church of the Lower Provinces. These groups stretched from the Maritimes to Ontario, and oversaw the spiritual needs of approximately 88,000 Presbyterians in Canada. In 1870, Rev. Dr. William Ormiston (1821-99) and Rev. Dr. John Jenkins (1813-98), former moderators from the Canada Presbyterian Church and the Church of Scotland respectively, encouraged other Presbyterian ministers to consider a union of the four groups based on doctrinal similarities and physical proximity. Committees were appointed to examine the prospect of a union; negotiations were begun in 1871. Despite several theological differences, the union took place in 1875, and the Presbyterian Church in Canada was divided into four Synods: Maritime Provinces, Montreal and Ottawa, Toronto and Kingston, and Hamilton and London. As the Presbyterian community continued to expand, the synods’ boundaries were revised to reflect population growth, and new synods were added in Western and Northern Canada.

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  • 119 Prohibition

    During the 19th and 20th centuries, the prohibition of alcohol was promoted and enforced in communities across North America. Pressure to ban the sale of alcohol was fuelled by the Temperance Movement, championed in Canada by the Dominion Alliance for the Total Suppression of the Alcohol Traffic and the Women’s Christian Temperance Union. These groups sought to control alcohol consumption, which they tied to a number of social issues including poverty, education and women’s suffrage. In 1878, the federal government passed the Canada Temperance Act, which enabled individual municipalities to prohibit the sale of liquor in their communities. By 1919, each Canadian province and Newfoundland had passed some form of legislation restricting the manufacture and sale of alcohol. The temperance victory was short-lived, though, as the illegal smuggling of alcohol continued to supply consumers. In the 1920s, most provinces repealed prohibition in favour of government-controlled alcohol sales. In 1927, the Liquor Control Board of Ontario was established.

  • 120 Publication of Tyndale's Bible

    William Tyndale’s New Testament was the first of its kind printed in the English language. He also translated many books of the Old Testament before being executed for heresy in 1536. His were the first English Bible translations to draw directly from the Hebrew and Greek texts. They substantially informed the creation of the King James Version (1611).

  • 121 Quebec Act of 1774

  • 122 Rebellions of 1837

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  • 123 Red River Rebellion

  • 124 Regiopolis College

    Regiopolis College was established in 1837 by Bishop Alexander Macdonell (1762-1840) at Regiopolis in Upper Canada (Kingston, Ontario). Macdonell saw the need for a school where a strong sense of loyalty to church and state would be instilled in students. Although plagued by a severe shortage of funds, the new secondary school began to be built in 1839. In 1866, the college was incorporated as the University of Regiopolis, but it became obvious that the Diocese of Kingston could not maintain it. The Jesuit Order purchased the university charter in 1931 and took control of the school. Enrollment at the university level was low; only two graduating classes – in 1941 and 1942 – were granted degrees. Further financial difficulties led to the union of the college and a nearby girls' school run by the Sisters of the Congregation de Notre Dame. All university-level courses were discontinued and the two schools united to become Regiopolis-Notre Dame Catholic Secondary School in 1967.

  • 125 Reign of Queen Victoria

  • 126 Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) Settlement at Adolphustown

    As a result of increased harassment of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in the United States following the American Revolution (1775-83), members of the Friends settled in Adolphustown Township in 1784. The first Preparative Meeting of Quakers in either Upper or Lower Canada took place in Adolphustown in 1798 at the house of Philip Dorland (1755-1814). That year, a meeting house and burying ground were built on Dorland's farm at Hay Bay. By 1801, the local Quaker population had grown sufficiently to warrant the establishment of an Adolphustown Monthly Meeting. Although a new meeting house was built in 1868 to replace the original Hay Bay structure, many of the Quakers’ descendants had either moved away or joined the Methodists, greatly reducing the congregation’s size. The Adolphustown Monthly Meeting was discontinued in 1871. The Hay Bay meeting house gradually fell into ruin; all that remains is a small burying ground marking the site.

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  • 127 Retention of Presbyterian Name

    The creation of the United Church of Canada in 1925 brought together Presbyterians, Methodists and Congregationalists across the country, but a small group remained who refused to join the new denomination. Disillusioned by the carnage of the First World War (1914-18) and the failure of prohibition as a social reform to take hold in Canada, some Presbyterian parishes saw little benefit in the unification. A battle ensued over which group should retain the Presbyterian name. Both the unionist Presbyterians and those who chose not to join the United Church of Canada wished to continue using the name Presbyterian in their denomination’s title. Relations between the two groups were strained, especially since disputes in naming the denominations quickly complicated the ownership of former Presbyterian Church in Canada properties. Those Presbyterians who chose not to join the United Church in 1925 were known as Continuing-Presbyterians until 1938, when the Supreme Court of Canada awarded them use of the name Presbyterian.

    26 record(s) found

  • 128 Russian Revolution

  • 129 Sacred Heart College

    In 1913, in order to accommodate the growing French-speaking community of northeastern Ontario, the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) established Sacred Heart College in Sudbury. This secondary and post-secondary institution was incorporated by the Ontario Legislature in 1914. At first, the college was bilingual but after 1916, courses were taught exclusively in French. The classical college curriculum was based on the traditional study of Greek and Latin, philosophy, the Bible, teachings of the Church Fathers and French literature. The College was affiliated with various Ontario universities until 1957 when the post-secondary section of Sacred Heart College was incorporated as the University of Sudbury, which in 1960 became part of Laurentian University. The Jesuits continued to teach secondary school at Sacred Heart until 1967 when financial considerations forced them to close the institution. Sacred Heart College was the first institution of higher education in northern Ontario. In 2003, after extensive renovations on the original college site, Sacred Heart Secondary School was opened to students.

  • 130 Sainte-Marie Among the Hurons

    Sainte-Marie, the first French mission centre west of the Ottawa River, was established in 1639 as the headquarters for the Jesuits in Huronia (Wendake) and as a refuge for Christianized Huron Indians. It was constructed by skilled artisans and members of the community directed by Father Jérôme Lalemant, superior of the Mission (1638-45). Sainte-Marie eventually comprised a hospital, church, chapel, residences, workshops, farm buildings and minor fortifications; at times, it housed some 60 Europeans. By 1649, the centre served 12 mission villages. Following the defeat of the Huron by the Iroquois, Sainte-Marie was burned by the Jesuits and abandoned in the spring of 1649.

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  • 131 Second Vatican Council

    The Second Vatican Council was convened by Pope John XXIII in 1962. Its aim was to reconcile the Church with changes in modern culture and foster greater lay involvement in Church life. The most immediate effect of the council was the granting of permission to celebrate Mass in the vernacular.

  • 132 Second World War

  • 133 Seven Years' War

  • 134 Spanish Civil War

  • 135 Spanish Inquisition established

  • 136 Temperance Movement

    The Temperance Movement was formed by a series of Christian social reform groups in Canada and the United States during the mid-19th century. These groups sought to control alcohol consumption in their communities, which they tied to a number of social issues including poverty, education, family planning, children’s labour reform and women’s suffrage. Temperance groups – including the Sons of Temperance and Women’s Christian Temperance Union in Canada – petitioned provincial and federal authorities to legislate prohibition. In 1878, the federal government passed the Canada Temperance Act, which enabled individual municipalities to opt in to a prohibition scheme. This act led to the adoption of prohibition legislation by 1916 in all provinces except Quebec. The temperance victory was short-lived, however, and in the 1920s most provinces repealed the prohibition legislation in favour of government-controlled alcohol sales. Changing social attitudes toward alcohol forced temperance groups to focus their efforts on convincing individuals to abstain from alcohol, and promoting the dangers of tobacco and drug use.

  • 137 The Basilian Order in Windsor

    In the mid-19th century, the Basilian Fathers, a Roman Catholic order, took on the former charges of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in Windsor, including Assumption College. The Jesuits had established the Assumption Parish in 1787 but were unable to maintain Assumption College after its opening in 1857. The Basilian Order had been created in France in 1822 to educate priests following the closure of many French seminaries during the French Revolution (1787-99). In Windsor, under Father Denis O’Connor (1841-1908), the Basilians took control of Assumption College in 1870 and created a more permanent home for students by constructing new school buildings. By 1919, the college was affiliated with the University of Western Ontario (UWO). The Basilians struggled to preserve Catholicism throughout their instruction and content, but the college became increasingly secularized through its affiliation with the UWO. In 1953, the college broke from the UWO and became a fully accredited university. Assumption University of Windsor amalgamated with the University of Windsor in 1962.

    1 record(s) found

  • 138 The Battle of Waterloo

  • 139 The Buxton Settlement

    In 1849, Rev. William King (1812-95) established a community for both fugitive slaves and free Blacks under the protection of the British government near Chatham, Canada West (Ontario). Under Rev. King's guidance, and with the assistance of the Presbyterian Church and Canadian abolitionists, nearly 9,000 acres of land were purchased. The initial settlers included a family of former slaves from Rev. King’s wife’s family plantation (brought to Canada from Louisiana) and Isaac Riley, the first Black man to purchase land in the settlement. The newly formed settlement was named Buxton. Rev. King oversaw the establishment of a frame church and the Buxton Mission School in early 1850; the school became so successful that many white settlers sent their children there for classes, creating one of the first integrated schools in North America. By 1852, nearly 350 acres of wilderness had been cleared and was being farmed for corn, tobacco and hemp. The community thrived, with nearly 2,000 inhabitants by the mid-1860s. Following the American Civil War (1861-65) and the abolition of slavery in the United States, a number of Buxton residents returned to America, but many of the original inhabitants’ descendants still live in the area.

    2 record(s) found

  • 140 The Church of England in Canada is renamed the Anglican Church of Canada

  • 141 The First Great Awakening

    The First Great Awakening was a religious revival movement that occurred in the British North American colonies (United States) throughout the 1730s and 1740s. The movement was inspired by evangelical Protestant preachers, such as George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards, who often preached open-air sermons to audiences that, at times, numbered in the tens of thousands. It was the first in a series of Great Awakenings that galvanized American Christians in the 18th and 19th centuries.

  • 142 The Great Disruption

    Throughout the 19th century, the Church of Scotland employed a system of patronage in order to match ministers with vacant pulpits, requiring preachers to have the support of a local wealthy landowner in order to secure a calling and be ordained. In 1843, Presbyterian ministers in Scotland protested against the patronage system, arguing that the church should be funded and supported by the state, but not under its control. That year, 450 Evangelical Presbyterian ministers broke from the Church of Scotland and formed the Free Church of Scotland, later called The Great Disruption. In Canada, the United Synod of Canada met at Kingston in 1844 to debate whether to break from the Church of Scotland. Twenty-three of the 96 Presbyterian ministers present decided to leave, forming the Synod of the Presbyterian Church in Canada (Free Church). Many congregations were splintered, and new Free Churches established across Upper Canada (Ontario) with minimal funds and little property. The Free Church continued to maintain close ties with the Church of Scotland, and the two groups amalgamated in 1875.

  • 143 The Great Separation

    In 1828, the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) split between followers of evangelical minister Elias Hicks (1748-1830) and Orthodox Quakers committed to following traditional doctrine. This split was known as the Great Separation. This event followed an 1827 split among the Quaker meetings of the United States, beginning at the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting. At issue was the role of external authority within the Quaker faith, with the Hicksites arguing for the importance of personal spirituality and Orthodox Quakers advocating for the supreme authority of scripture. This disagreement was transported to Canada by American Quakers and soon Hicksite sympathizers appeared at meetings across Ontario. Records vary in their interpretation of the separation, with Hicksite Quakers claiming to have left the church and Orthodox Quakers describing the expulsion of seceders. Both the Canada Yearly Meeting (Orthodox) and Genesee Yearly Meeting (Hicksite) branches suffered a lack of membership and resources. Though the Friends collaborated when sending funds and medical aid to Europe during the First World War (1914-18), they were not reunited until the formation of the Canadian Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends in Newmarket in 1954.

  • 144 The Hamilton Jewish Community Centre

    The Hamilton Jewish Community Centre existed in its earliest form as the Young Men’s and Young Women’s Hebrew Association (YM-YWHA), established in 1890. The association was tied to both Orthodox and Reform synagogues in Hamilton, providing a non-partisan community space for learning and activity. With programs available at various locations around the city, the association provided educational, recreational and spiritual activities for young Jewish residents, while donating funds and aid to immigrants and overseas projects. In 1950, the Jacob N. Goldblatt Memorial Building was constructed to house the Jewish Community Centre, supported by both Beth Jacob Synagogue and Temple Anshe Sholom. The centre also housed the local Talmud Torah, Jewish adult organisations, Welfare Fund and Jewish Social Services under one roof. In 1986, the downtown building was sold and the new Hamilton Wentworth and Area Jewish Community Centre was constructed closer to where many of Hamilton’s Jewish families had relocated since the Second World War (1939-45). The centre continues today as the oldest Jewish Community Centre operating in Canada.

  • 145 The Holocaust

    Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its collaborators pursued a program of state-sponsored, systematic persecution, expulsion and mass murder of ethnic, religious and political groups they deemed inferior and undesirable. Since the Second World War, the term “holocaust” has come to refer to the genocide of six million Jews (nearly two-thirds of Europe’s Jewish population) and the massive global displacement of survivors. The six to 10 million people from other targeted groups – Poles, Soviets, Romani (Gypsies), homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, the disabled and political opponents – are often included as victims of the Holocaust as well.

  • 146 The Protectorate

    The Protectorate was the period following the English Civil War during which Oliver Cromwell (and afterward his son Richard Cromwell) was Lord Protector of England.

  • 147 The Scopes Monkey Trial

    John Scopes, a high school biology teacher in Dayton, Tennessee, was accused of violating state law by teaching the theory of evolution; he was brought to trial in 1925. The so-called Scopes Monkey Trial drew intense national and international publicity and generated widespread debate. Scopes was found guilty but the verdict was overturned on a technicality.

  • 148 The Simcoe Street Talmud Torah

    In 1907, the Toronto Hebrew Religious School was established as a joint venture between several synagogues in the city, becoming the first Hebrew school in Toronto. In its first year, the Talmud received over 400 members whose contributions enabled the purchase of a house on Simcoe Street for classes. The school was subsequently known as the Simcoe Street Talmud Torah. B. Nathanson of Rochester, New York, was chosen as principal, and classes on the Bible, Hebrew language and grammar, Jewish history and Talmudic teachings began immediately. The school’s population grew exponentially. The institution was granted a charter by the province of Ontario in 1922. That year, construction began on a new Talmud Torah building on Brunswick Avenue, and the Simcoe Street Talmud Torah became the Brunswick Avenue Talmud Torah. In 1946, the school joined with other Hebrew educational facilities to form the Associated Hebrew Schools of Toronto.

  • 149 The Wilburite Separation

    In 1881, the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in North America was dominated by a group of conservative Friends called Wilburites. Followers of Rhode Island-based minister John Wilbur (1774-1856), they felt that the Orthodox Quaker reaction to the Great Separation of 1828 was too progressive and Bible-centred. They advocated a more personal spiritual interpretation as closer to the traditional Quaker faith. American Wilburite leaders visited Yearly Meetings at West Lake, Pelham, Pickering and Toronto starting in 1875, and gathered followers of this new form of Quakerism. The Wilburites stressed an individual understanding of scripture. A revised version of the Quaker Discipline, developed by New York Wilburites in 1877, was adopted by the Canada Yearly Meeting in 1879, relaxing strict guidelines on dress, language and religious services. The progressive Quakers began to withdraw from Ontario Meetings, and the Friends were formally divided across Ontario by 1881. Separate meetings of the Canada Yearly Meeting of Conservative Friends (Wilburite) and Canada Yearly Meeting of Progressive Friends were established. These groups remained split until the union of Quakers as the Canadian Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends in Newmarket in 1954.

  • 150 Thirty Years' War

  • 151 Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion established by the Church of England

    The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion, established in 1563 after decades of religious turmoil in England, were the defining doctrinal principles of the Church of England.

  • 152 Treaty of Paris (1763)

    The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the Seven Years' War.

  • 153 Ursuline Convent founded in Quebec City

  • 154 Vietnam War

  • 155 War of 1812

    2 record(s) found

  • 156 William Penn founds Pennsylvania

    William Penn founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1682. Penn, a Quaker, established laws that promoted tolerance and ensured religious freedom for the colony’s inhabitants.

  • 157 Women's Christian Temperance Union

    In 1874, Canada’s Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was founded in Picton, Ontario by Letitia Youmans (1827-96). Modelled on the American Temperance Union, the WCTU was the largest non-denominational women's organization in Canada at the time. The Union advocated for prohibition as a means towards social reform, while promoting Christian values and the expansion of women’s roles in society. Public support for prohibition grew across Canada and in the early 20th century, individual provinces began adopting prohibition. Though this was a major victory for the WCTU, it was short-lived. In the 1920s, Canadian provinces began the repeal of prohibition legislation. As attitudes to alcohol changed in Canadian society, the WCTU refocused its efforts on encouraging individuals to lead lives of temperance, advocating for social reforms and publicizing the dangers of tobacco and drug use. The WCTU actively promoted improved social conditions for women in Canada and established women’s hospitals and residences for single working women. By the late 20th century, the Union faced declining membership and financial difficulties, but continued to petition provincial and federal governments to restrict the advertisement and retail availability of alcoholic beverages.

  • 158 YMCA-YWCA

    The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) and Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) were established in 19th-century England to provide physical and spiritual help to young urban men and women . The first YMCA in North America appeared in Montreal in 1851. By 1912, a National Council of YMCAs in Canada was established to oversee some 45 branches throughout the country. The YMCA provided residences, skills training, physical training facilities and opportunities for social interaction amongst young men. In order to provide services to increasing numbers of young, single working women in urban areas, the first Canadian branch of the YWCA was organized in New Brunswick in 1870 by Agnes Blizzard and Adelaide Hoodless (1857-1910). The organization provided libraries, workplace training, camping experiences and residences for women. Although the YMCA and YWCA were initially affiliated only with Protestant churches, with the increasing diversity of Canadian society during the 20th century, the YMCA-YWCA adopted a secular approach to their programming and promotional materials in order to make their facilities accessible to all members of the community.

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