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  • 1 Akron Plan

    The Akron Plan is an architectural design for the Sunday school area in church buildings consisting of a central rotunda (or auditorium) with individual radiating classrooms on one or two levels encircling a podium or lectern. These classrooms are separated from the rotunda by large sliding or folding doors that, when open, expose the classrooms to the central space. The design is named for the city of Akron, Ohio, where it was first used at First Methodist Episcopal Church (1866-70). Developed in response to the needs of the mid-19th-century Sunday school movement, the Akron Plan is a versatile design that allows Sunday school students to participate in elements of the service or receive communal instruction when the doors are open – or undertake individual class instruction when they are closed. This dual function was well suited to the Uniform Lessons system, adopted by Sunday schools throughout the United States and Canada in the latter part of the 19th century. Within this system, each grade and each class in all participating schools followed the same weekly curriculum throughout the year. As in public schools, students were separated into graded classes. Every child, therefore, received a lesson on the same topic each Sunday – but one geared toward their particular age group. The Akron Plan allowed classes to participate together during some portions of the lesson, then efficiently section off during others. The Uniform Lesson system declined in popularity throughout the course of the 20th century and Akron Plan churches, expensive and complicated to design and build, dwindled in number.

    7 record(s) found

  • 2 B'nai Brith in Ontario

    Established in New York City in 1843, the B’nai Brith began as a Jewish fraternal and social service organization, spreading to Canada in 1875. The first Canadian branch, Canada Lodge No. 246, was opened in Toronto in June 1875 by members of Holy Blossom Temple. This led the way for subsequent branches in Montreal (1881), Ottawa (1921), Hamilton (1921), Windsor (1925) and London (1925). A new Toronto Lodge No. 836 was established in 1919 with 500 members, including Jewish leader Edmund Scheuer (1847-1943) and Toronto Mayor Nathan Phillips (1892-1976). Activities focused on providing financial and social support to the Jewish community, including access to medical care, summer camps and the Toronto Hebrew Free Loan Association. Lodges in Ontario were initially under the jurisdiction of the District Grand Lodge No. 1 in New York City until District Grand Lodge No. 22, the first solely Canadian District, was established in 1964. Today, B’nai Brith acts as a Jewish advocacy organization, focusing on social service, human rights issues, anti-Semitism and strengthened relations between Israel and Canada.

  • 3 Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith

    Founded in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV, the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (Congregatio de Propaganda Fide) was a branch of the Roman Curia responsible for the direction of missionary activity throughout the world and for the promotion of the Catholic faith in non-Catholic countries or territories. Canada came under the jurisdiction of Propaganda Fide until 1908. The congregation was renamed the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in 1982.

  • 4 Congregation of St. Basil (Basilians)

    The Congregation of St. Basil (Basilians) was established in France in 1822 as a clandestine organization devoted to the education of priests following the dissolution of seminaries during the French Revolution. In 1850, Basilian Fathers were invited to Canada by Bishop Charbonnel of Toronto – himself a former student of the Basilian school in Annonay, France – to undertake the education of Catholic youth within the diocese. Two years later, they founded St. Michael’s College in Toronto, which taught boys at the high school and university levels. In 1881, St. Michael’s College affiliated with the University of Toronto. St. Michael’s is one of the oldest colleges within the University of Toronto’s federation; it continues to have a distinctively Catholic character. In 1929, Basilians at St. Michael’s College created the world-renowned Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies that houses one of the largest collections of medieval documentation in North America. Basilian Fathers have also had a significant presence in Windsor. In 1870, the Basilians took charge of both the Assumption College in Sandwich (Windsor), which had previously been run by Jesuits, and of the historic Assumption Parish – the oldest Catholic parish west of Montreal. Assumption University continues to be run by Basilians. It is now affiliated with the University of Windsor. Basilian Fathers have also established parishes in Amherstburg, Chatham, Owen Sound and Toronto, and have been active in communities throughout the province. They have educated numerous future priests, bishops and archbishops, as well as thousands of lay people. In addition to running parishes and schools, Basilian Fathers have chaplaincies in many Ontario universities. Though founded in France, the Congregation of St. Basil now has its curial offices in Toronto.

    6 record(s) found

  • 5 Evangelism and Evangelicals in Canada

    Evangelism began in 18th-century England as a Christian denomination with emphasis on conversion and personal piety. Canadian Evangelism began with Rev. Henry Alline (1748-84), an American preacher who brought the “Great Awakening” religious revival to Nova Scotia. In the 19th century, the Evangelical movement in Canada was divided amongst “radical Evangelicals” (Baptists and Methodists) and “formal Evangelicals” (Protestants and Anglicans). After the War of 1812, anti-American sentiment pushed radical Evangelism to the periphery of Canadian church life, while formal Evangelical Protestantism became the primary denomination in the country. Throughout the 20th century, Evangelism in Canada declined as Christianity slowly lost its dominance in society and increased immigration to Canada diversified the population. New Evangelical denominations arose in Canada, including Pentecostals, the Salvation Army, Mormons and Jehovah’s Witnesses. As the Evangelists' dominance in Canadian society waned, previously estranged Evangelical groups banded together over shared beliefs and concerns. In 1964, the Evangelical Fellowship of Canada was formed. Despite differences over various points of doctrine and worship, their fundamental concern for doctrinal orthodoxy, belief in the development of personal piety, and commitment to evangelism united the disparate groups.

    1 record(s) found

  • 6 Franciscan Récollets (Recollects)

    Established in the early 17th century, the Récollets were a reformed branch of the Roman Catholic Franciscan order. They were named for the recollection houses or monasteries to which friars would retreat for prayer, penitence and spiritual recollection. Known for their fortitude, piety and austerity, Récollets were often called on to be chaplains in the French army. A group of Récollet fathers arrived in New France with Samuel de Champlain in 1615. Later that same year, the Récollet Father Joseph Le Caron became the first priest to visit present-day Ontario when he travelled to the Huron village of Carhagouha, near the southeast shore of Georgian Bay. During the 1620s, a number of Récollet fathers conducted missions throughout Huron country. Included among these was Gabriel Sagard who wrote three important tomes on the history of New France and the culture and language of the Huron people. The Récollets vacated New France between 1629 and 1632 when the territory was in the hands of the English. When Catholic missionary activity resumed in the colony, it was largely directed by Jesuits. After the British conquest of New France, the Récollets were prohibited from recruiting new members, but continued to do so covertly. The last Canadian Récollet, Father Louis, died in 1848 in Quebec City. The Récollets were subsumed by the Order of Friars Minor in 1897.

  • 7 Gallicanism

    Gallicanism is a movement within Catholicism that seeks to place limits on Papal authority. At odds with ultramontanism, Gallicanism advocates a diminishment of Papal influence and jurisdiction in favour of state, episcopal or parochial governance. The doctrine, developed within the French Church over several centuries, was articulated in the Declaration of the Clergy of France (1682). Gallican movements have occurred not only in France, but also in the Netherlands and North America.

  • 8 Growth of the Presbyterian Church in Ontario

    In 1875, the four major branches of Presbyterianism in Canada were amalgamated, and the new Presbyterian Church in Canada was divided into four Synods: Maritime Provinces, Montreal and Ottawa, Toronto and Kingston, and Hamilton and London. As the Presbyterian community continued to expand, the synods’ boundaries were revised to reflect population growth, and new synods were added in Western and Northern Canada. The Presbyterian Church in Ontario expanded to the north, and new presbyteries were developed to reflect population growth in the south. Numerous Scottish and Irish Presbyterian communities were established in eastern Ontario through extended family and community immigration, as a result of unstable economic conditions in Europe at the Napoleonic Wars (1800-15). Between 1901 and 1921, more than 3.5 million immigrants entered Canada, many from Britain and the United States, considerably increasing the size of various Protestant denominations in Canada. By 1925, there were 380,000 Presbyterians in Canada. Between 1875 and 1925, over 200 Presbyterian churches were constructed across Ontario to meet the needs of new congregations.

  • 9 Highland clearances

    During the 18th and 19th centuries, several waves of mass evictions forced Scottish Highlanders off their lands. These clearances resulted in emigration to the Scottish Lowlands, North America, Australia and New Zealand.

    2 record(s) found

  • 10 Humanism

    Humanism is a broad term applied to philosophies and intellectual attitudes that focus on human experience, values and concerns. The pursuit of knowledge through the structured use of reason and empirical evidence is generally considered to be a fundamental aspect of humanism. Though humanism is not antithetical to religion, secular humanism is characterized by a rejection of religious belief.

  • 11 Huronia

    Huronia refers to the region occupied by the Huron prior to the Iroquois Wars. The region was bordered by Nottawasaga Bay to the west and Lake Simcoe to the east – in the northern part of what is now Simcoe County. The term did not come into common usage until the 19th century and is generally applied to the period of contact between the Huron and the French.

    1 record(s) found

  • 12 Jewish Settlement in Timmins

    With the growth of natural resource industries in northern Ontario, successive waves of immigrants to Canada found their way north, seeking employment and creating diverse settlements throughout the province. As a result of increasing silver and gold mining activity around Porcupine Lake in northeastern Ontario in the early 20th century, a community of Jewish immigrant workers from eastern Europe arose in Timmins. Many had arrived to work for the newly incorporated Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway, and several Jewish settlers soon became prominent businessmen and merchants, providing essential services to residents of the mining boomtown. The Jewish community in Timmins became one of the largest in northern Ontario, along with Jewish congregations in Kirkland Lake and North Bay. By 1912, a Jewish cemetery had been established at Kirkesdorf near Kirkland Lake, and the community had secured a rabbi to perform religious services. In 1925, a Hebrew Congregational Hall was erected, and the B’nai Israel congregation established in 1928. By the early 1950s, the town’s Jewish population included some 100 families.

  • 13 Liberation theology

    Developed by Roman Catholic priests in Latin America, liberation theology is a movement that seeks to unite Christian theology with political activism and sociopolitical concerns. Its aim is to liberate victims of political, economic and social injustice. Proponents of liberation theology assert that Christ’s teachings demand that action be taken to alleviate poverty and to aid the oppressed.

  • 14 Loyalist Settlers in Ontario

    Loyalists were American colonists who supported Britain during the American Revolution (1775-1783). During and after the Revolution, Loyalists faced persecution in the United States. They were subjected to harassment, intimidation, imprisonment and many had their property confiscated. The British government offered land grants to Loyalists willing to relocate to British North America. It is estimated that in the years following the Revolution, close to 10,000 Loyalists arrived in Ontario. They were a heterogeneous group that included Catholic Highlanders, Scottish Presbyterians, German Calvinists, German Lutherans, Quakers, Aboriginals, former slaves, Methodists, Congregationalists and Anglicans of English origin. Loyalist settlements were generally segregated according to ethnicity and religion. There were sizable Loyalist communities at Long Point on Lake Erie, in the Niagara Peninsula and in Essex County. Joseph Brant led nearly 2,000 Loyalist Iroquois to a settlement along the Grand River. On its banks, Anglican Mohawks constructed Ontario’s oldest surviving church, the Mohawk Chapel, in 1785. The majority of Loyalists settled in the newly surveyed townships along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River. A group of Methodists settled in Adolphustown and, in 1792, erected the Old Hay Bay Church – Canada’s oldest surviving Methodist building. Scottish Catholic Loyalists who settled in Glengarry and Stormont counties formed a parish and constructed St. Andrew’s Church in 1801. Before parishes were established and churches built, Loyalist faithful worshiped in private homes – often with laypeople conducting the services. When most Loyalists arrived, in the 1780s, the territory that is now Ontario was a sparsely inhabited wilderness that was part of the province of Quebec. Its laws and institutions were largely those that had been established under French rule. Loyalists, however, were defined by their desire for a British system of government. To accommodate them, the province of Upper Canada (now Ontario) was created in 1791. Upper Canada was given a legislative assembly and the province operated under British Common Law. Loyalists played a large role in shaping Ontario’s cultural identity and contributed greatly to its religious diversity.

    7 record(s) found

  • 15 Northern Ontario's Resource Communities

    As railways, and then highways, opened up remote areas of the province to industry and settlement from the late 19th century onward, there emerged a number of communities in northern Ontario that developed around the exploitation of a single natural resource. These communities were created for the purpose of mining one of the many metals and minerals embedded in the Canadian Shield – such as gold silver nickel, copper and uranium – or logging the region’s vast boreal forests. Whether they were built around the extraction of minerals or forest products, these single-resource communities shared several common features. The communities’ economies were not diversified enough to encourage growth and they therefore remained relatively small. This was primarily due to the fact that raw materials were typically sent elsewhere for processing. Additionally, the costs of developing adjunct industries were high in these usually isolated areas. The extraction or development of the resources upon which these communities relied was usually the initiative of an outside corporation or government. The communities’ inhabitants, therefore, had little control over their own economic development and were largely excluded from decision-making processes. Key decisions were often made in the economic interests of the controlling enterprises rather than the health of the local community. Because these communities tended to arise in sparsely inhabited areas, the workforce/population was not drawn from local communities but was brought in from further abroad – often from outside the county. Therefore, pockets of ethnic groups existed within the communities – such as Poles, Ukrainians, Italians and French-Canadians – who brought with them their customs, religions and languages. Religion was typically a central aspect of their national identities and religious institutions played an integral role in helping newcomers establish themselves in Ontario. Churches were built and clergy was brought in to meet the specific needs of these ethnic groups. Unfortunately, the narrowness of their economies made these single-resource communities especially susceptible to the boom and bust of market fluctuations. Over time, many of them have diminished significantly in size or vanished altogether.

    12 record(s) found

  • 16 Oblates of Mary Immaculate

    The Oblates of Mary Immaculate is a Roman Catholic men’s religious order founded in 1816 by Saint Eugene de Mazenod in France. They are primarily a missionary order dedicated to working with the poor. The Oblates’ constitution cites the “evangelization of the most abandoned” as a central focus of their ministry. Oblates are known for their work with immigrants, minorities and First Nations communities. Pope Pius XI called the Oblates “specialists in difficult missions.” The order came to Canada in 1841 at the invitation of Bishop Bourget of Montreal. Seven years later, Oblate Fathers founded Bytown College, which became the University of Ottawa in 1866. Oblates currently operate Saint Paul University within the University of Ottawa federation. Saint Paul University has a pontifical charter to grant ecclesiastical degrees. Oblates have been particularly active in western Canada and were responsible for establishing the Catholic Church in the northwest. From the 1870s to the 1980s, Oblates operated numerous residential schools for First Nations children across the country, including several in northern Ontario. The residential school system – run by many different religious groups and denominations – has since been the subject of much criticism and contention. Oblates are particularly active in Canada’s Polish immigrant communities. The Oblate’s Assumption Province – created in 1956 to serve Polish-Canadian Catholics – has its headquarters in Toronto.

    13 record(s) found

  • 17 Ontario's Catholic School System

    Generations of Ontario Catholics have considered education and religion to be inextricably linked. Catholics in the 19th and early 20th centuries believed that a state-supported, accessible Catholic education system was integral to the very survival of their faith in Protestant-dominated Ontario. The Catholic school system in Ontario had its beginnings with the Schools Act of 1841. This act created a public school system in the United Provinces of Canada and contained a clause allowing Catholics and other religious minorities to establish their own denominational schools. The following decades witnessed a proliferation of Catholic schools and institutions throughout the province. Despite the sectarian hostility, linguistic conflict and chronic lack of funding that plagued its development during the latter half of the century, the Catholic school system persevered, largely because its right to exist had been entrenched in the British North America Act (1867). During the 20th century, Ontario’s Catholic school system faced a number of challenges. The influx of Catholics from southern and central Europe who arrived after the Second World War and the baby boom that occurred simultaneously put a severe strain on the school system’s resources. Furthermore, suburbanization necessitated the creation of numerous new schools in new neighbourhoods and a decline in religious orders meant that many lay teachers had to be hired. A combination of political agitation and community support enabled the school system to overcome these issues. In 1997, the provincial government assumed sole responsibility of the funding of Catholic schools.

    2 record(s) found

  • 18 Orange Order

    The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal society formed in Ireland in 1795 to commemorate the victory of Protestant William of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. In British North America, the Grand Lodge of the Orange Order was founded in 1830 in Brockville. Throughout the following century, members of the order held key positions in many of Ontario’s institutions, such as governments, school boards and police forces. They were also leaders of industry. Orangeism was devoted to propagating Protestant values and strengthening ties with the British Empire and the monarchy. Although members of the order were predominantly Irish and Scottish, other ethnicities – such as Italians and Aboriginals – had Orange lodges in Ontario. Orangemen organized many benevolent activities and helped newly arrived Protestant immigrants transition to life in Ontario. The order, however, has been accused of inflaming sectarian antagonism and promoting anti-Catholicism. Orangemen held elaborate parades – most notably their annual parade on July 12 – which, at times, led to violent clashes with local Catholics. Orangeism reached the peak of its influence in Ontario in the early decades of the 20th century when an estimated 60 per cent of the world’s Orangemen were Ontarians. Since the mid-20th century, Orangeism has declined significantly in Ontario.

  • 19 Social Gospel

    The Social Gospel (originally called Social Christianity) is a Protestant movement that applies Christian principles to the promotion of social justice. A strong force in Canadian religious, social and political life in the first half of the 20th century, Social Gospel thought contains elements of evangelicalism as well as liberal progressivism. Canadian Social Gospel leaders were instrumental in the creation of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation in 1932.

  • 20 Society for the Propagation of the Gospels

    The Society for the Propagation of the Gospels in Foreign Parts (SPG) was a missionary society affiliated with the Church of England. It was created in 1701 to support the establishment of the Church in Britain’s American colonies and to evangelize the continent’s Native population. After the American Revolution (1775-1783), the SPG withdrew from the United States and focused its attention on British North America, where they became hugely influential. They sent missionaries, paid clergy, supported the construction of churches and provided advice and expertise to the colonial church. Between 1702 and 1900, the SPG sent nearly 400 clergymen to Ontario. Despite the fact that they saved the colonial church from numerous crises, the SPG’s activities in Canada were fraught with difficulties. The society was directed by a secretary who was based in London and usually had little understanding of the hardships that faced the colonial church. Friction between colonial bishops and SGP secretaries was common. Colonial bishops were continually frustrated by the fact that although they had jurisdiction over activities in their dioceses, the SPG often held the purse strings. The SPG’s influence in Canada began to wane in the later half of the 19th century as their funding declined. It wasn’t until 1940, however, that the Anglican Church in Canada decided to forgo all further SPG grants.

    6 record(s) found

  • 21 Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

    Founded in 1534 by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556), the Society of Jesus (or Jesuits) is the largest men’s religious order in the Roman Catholic Church. Known for their widespread missionary work and commitment to education, Jesuits are characterized by a combination of discipline, academic rigor and religious zeal. A marked devotion to the papacy is another distinguishing feature of the Jesuit order. Jesuits first arrived in present-day Ontario in 1634 when they followed the route established in 1615 by Récollet missionaries (and Champlain soon thereafter) that led from Montreal to the south shores of Georgian Bay via the Ottawa and French rivers. In 1639, they founded the mission-village of Sainte-Marie among the Hurons near present-day Midland. There they hoped to develop a Christian community comprised of both Europeans and aboriginals. The village, however, was a casualty of the Iroquois Wars and its residents were forced to burn and flee the mission in 1649. Eight Jesuit missionaries who died during the Iroquois Wars have been canonized – including Jean de Brébeuf, Isaac Jogues, Gabriel Lalement, Antoine Daniel, Charles Garnier, Noël Chabanel, René Goupil and Jean de la Lande. Despite events at Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, Jesuits continued to establish missions throughout present-day Ontario. As the region’s Catholic population grew, so did Jesuit institutions within it. The first major Jesuit outpost to be established in the province after the fall of Sainte-Marie among the Hurons was the mission of the Assumption at La Pointe de Montréal (Windsor). This mission served both the area’s sizable French-speaking population and Huron who had relocated there after the Iroquois Wars. It became the Parish of the Assumption in 1767 and is the oldest Roman Catholic parish in Ontario. Bowing to pressure from secular European rulers, Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Jesuit order in 1773. This decision hampered Jesuit activity in Upper Canada until well after the society’s restoration in 1814. There remained, however, a Jesuit presence in the region because Bishop Briand of Quebec decided against informing the Jesuit pastor at the Assumption (Father Potier) of the order’s disbandment. In the mid-19th century, Jesuits resumed operations in the province and established a number of missions in remote communities, including Wikwemikong on Manitoulin Island in 1844, Sault Ste. Marie in 1846 and Fort William (Thunder Bay) in 1849. They were also the first order to serve Roman Catholic Germans in the Waterloo region. Throughout the following century and a half, Jesuits founded missions, parishes, schools and seminaries throughout Ontario. In 1924, the Jesuits of Ontario gained a large degree of administrative autonomy with the creation of the Jesuit Vice-Province of Upper Canada. At the time, the order had 30 missions, nine parishes and six colleges under their direction. Often working in close co-operation with diocesan clergy and religious women’s orders – as well as other Christian denominations and secular organizations – Jesuits have continued to play a key role in the education of countless Catholic youth and in the development of many of Ontario’s social institutions.

    18 record(s) found

  • 22 Sunday school

    The history of Sunday school is generally considered to have begun with Robert Raikes’ efforts to educate poor children in Gloucester, England in the late 18th century. The notion of educating the poor and the illiterate on Sundays – often their only day off work – soon spread and church-led organizations were created to teach reading, writing and other basic skills to both children and adults. Though tied to church activity, these organizations were often interdenominational and classes were rarely held within churches. As the movement developed, primarily in England and the United States, it became heavily imbued with Protestant notions regarding the nature of children, the need for personal salvation and the role of education in spiritual life. With the introduction of state-sponsored school systems in the 19th century, Sunday schools’ broad educational programs gave way to religious catechism and Bible study. Sunday schools, therefore, became more closely linked with individual denominations and were increasingly held within churches – often in the basement or in rooms behind the sanctuary. In the latter half of the 19th century, Sunday school administrators in North America were influenced by pedagogical theories emerging out of the education movement and by public school structures. Sunday school classes began to be graded, segregated according to age and achievement. Many feared, however, that these divisions would stifle communication and dialogue regarding lessons between students of different age groups and between family members. In response, the interdenominational American Sunday School Union adopted the Uniform Lessons system in 1872. Within this system, each grade and class in all participating schools followed the same curriculum week by week throughout the year. Every child, therefore, received a lesson on the same topic each Sunday – but one geared toward their particular age group. Sunday schools were an important part of religious and social life among Protestants through the first half of the 20th century. Sunday school was often invoked as a symbol of goodness, integrity, devotion and community.

  • 23 The Glasgow Colonial Society

    A chief concern of early 19th-century Scottish settlers was the lack of ordained ministers in their new community. In 1825, “The Society, in connection with the Church of Scotland, for Promoting the Religious Interests of Scottish Settlers in British North America” was established. Formed by Glaswegians, the name was shortened to the Glasgow Colonial Society. The goal of the Society was to provide religious instruction to Scottish immigrants, manage the applications of Scottish ministers hoping to work in Canada, and apply for government funding to provide stipends and land for ministers abroad. Its patron was General George Ramsay, Earl of Dalhousie (1770-1838), then Governor General of British North America, and its secretary was Rev. Robert Burns (1789-1869) of Knox College in Toronto. The Society actively recruited ministers for service in Canada and, by 1844, had sent 28 missionaries to established centres of Presbyterianism such as Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry in Upper Canada (Ontario). With the establishment of Presbyterian seminaries at Queen’s University in Kingston (1841) and Knox College in Toronto (1844), the need for Scottish missionaries decreased as more Canadians were ordained. Through the efforts of the Glasgow Colonial Society, Presbyterian immigrants to Canada were able to establish an extensive network of congregations and rural preaching circuits.

  • 24 The Jesuit Relations

    The Jesuit Relations were a series of documents written by Jesuit missionaries in New France and sent annually to their Paris office between 1632 and 1672. The Relations consisted of letters, reports, narratives and ethnographic analyses chronicling the Jesuits’ attempts to convert First Nations communities to Catholicism. Compiled and edited by Jesuit Superiors in Quebec City – then further edited in France – the Relations were avidly read by the French public in the 17th and 18th centuries. Despite the embellishments, inaccuracies and prejudices contained in some of the works, they remain extremely valuable historical sources.

  • 25 The Oxford Movement

    The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Anglicans led by John Henry Newman (later a cardinal of the Catholic Church), who wanted the Church of England to revive many of the doctrines and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. The movement, which developed in Anglo-Catholicism, sought to bring the Church of England into communion with the Church of Rome.

    1 record(s) found

  • 26 Ultramontanism in Ontario

    Ultramontanism is a movement within Roman Catholicism that exalts papal authority and seeks to centralize power in the hands of the Pope. A fundamental aspect of ultramontanism is the belief that the state should be subordinate to the Church, especially in matters of education and social welfare. Ultramontane concepts and sentiments have informed much of the history of Catholicism in Ontario. Before Catholic institutions were established and integrated in the province, clergy and laity could look to Rome for guidance, stability and support. As Catholic immigrants arrived in Ontario from all parts of the world, devotion to the Bishop of Rome was a unifying force that crossed cultural barriers and countered ethnic segregation. Furthermore, the influence of ultramontanism on architecture has given the movement a visual presence in the province. Catholic churches in Ontario – especially those within Italian communities – that desired to create strong visual ties with Rome often wanted their buildings to be executed in the Renaissance or baroque styles. In Ontario, most ultramontane churches were built between Confederation and the First World War. For the most part, these churches were executed by one of two architects – either Joseph Connolly or Arthur W. Holmes.

  • 27 Underground Railroad

    The Underground Railroad was an informal network of secret routes, meeting places and safe houses used by freedom-seeking slaves in their attempts to reach the northern free states, Canada, Mexico and the Caribbean. Desperate to escape the abhorrent conditions of enslavement, followers of the Underground Railway braved many dangers and hardships on their journeys to freedom. Professional slave catchers and federal officials often pursued escaped slaves and, if captured, slaves frequently endured torture and retribution at the hands of their owners. It has been estimated that almost 100,000 slaves used the Underground Railroad in one way or another – and it is believed that about 30,000 of these made their way to Canada. Canadian destinations ranged from British Columbia to Nova Scotia, but most were clustered around the lower Great Lakes. Abolitionists, sympathizers and former slaves – often organized into small groups – helped shelter, guide and provision fugitives along the route. Railroad terminology was used as code to identify elements of the journey. For example, people who helped guide freedom seekers were called conductors and safe houses were called stations. Ontario has several historic sites directly linked to the arrival of refugee slaves from the southern United States. Members and clergy of several Christian denominations took active roles in the operation of the Underground Railroad, and in supporting the freedom seekers upon their arrival on Canadian soil.

    14 record(s) found

  • 28 Zionist Movement in Ontario

    The Zionist Movement, dedicated to securing a home state for the global Jewish population, was brought to Canada from Europe during the 19th century. Zionists such as Henry Wentworth Monk (1826-97) travelled extensively to raise funds for the Jewish homeland cause. In Montreal, Clarence de Sola (1858-1920) established the Federation of Zionist Societies of Canada in 1899. By 1916, Canadian Hadassah, General Zionist, Labour Zionist and Mizrachi groups had been established throughout the province. Canadian Zionist activities focused on fundraising and education to support Jewish settlement in Palestine. As a result of the Holocaust, political and financial support for Zionism shifted from Europe to North America, accelerating the founding of Israel by galvanizing the cause and securing universal political support. Canadian Zionists directed their efforts toward Holocaust survivor aid. Jewish women were leaders in fundraising to support of women and children in Palestine, led by Anna Selick of the Hadassah Women’s International Zionist Organization (WIZO) in Toronto, and Lillian Freiman (1885-1940) of Ottawa for the Palestine Restoration Fund. In 1947, the United Nations partitioned Palestine, creating the state of Israel. Since the establishment of a Jewish state, Zionist activity in Ontario has focused primarily on aiding immigration to Israel, and supporting the defence and self-determination of Israel.

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