Architectural style - Ontario Heritage Trust

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Architectural style


  • 1 Art Deco

    Also known as “Zigzag,” Art Deco takes its name from the Arts Decoratifs Exhibition that took place in Paris in 1924-25. It also applies to the “jazz age” style of interiors, furniture, jewelry and industrial design. This style emerged after the end of the First World War and was a self-conscious break from the past. Ornamental or decorative elements were either stripped of historical references, or historical references were highly stylized and transformed. It exhibits angular geometric forms, diagonal patterns, and multicolour primitive motifs applied to planar boxlike massing. Wall surfaces include brick, cast stone, terra cotta and smooth stucco. Accent materials include sculptural terra cotta, dressed stone, modern metal alloys, glass block and stainless steel. In grand expressions of the style, figurative planar images, bas relief and even sculptural works are executed in tile, terra cotta and other materials. Floors are often decorative stone, tile and terrazzo. In Ontario, the Art Deco style was once popular for cinemas, high density residential blocks, commercial storefronts, and offices, but very rarely found in the architecture of places of worship in the province.

    6 record(s) found

  • 2 Arts and Crafts

    The Arts and Crafts style refers to a set of design principles that applies to art, design and architecture, and attempts to re-establish the artistic skills of craftsmanship that were threatened by the rapid industrialization of the 19th century. Arts and Crafts architecture emphasizes vernacular traditions, the act of construction, handcraft, rational design, comfort, simplicity, large planes, strong textures, earthy hues and simple local materials. In North America, the style came to be known as Craftsman or Stick style. William Morris was the most important writer and theorist of the style. In England, the style was expressed architecturally by Philip Webb, in America by Gustav Stickley and the Greene Brothers. In Ontario, architect Eden Smith was its most prominent proponent. The Arts and Crafts style is not common in Ontario’s places of worship, though a number of examples can be found throughout the province.

    35 record(s) found

  • 3 Baroque Revival

    3 record(s) found

  • 4 Beaux-Arts

    This neoclassical style is named for the French School of Architecture – l’Ecole des Beaux-Arts – that had a great impact on architecture during the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. Beaux-Arts architecture employs balance and symmetry and a hierarchy of spaces – from "noble spaces," such as grand entrances and staircases, to utilitarian ones of increasing privacy. Beaux-Arts buildings are often grand and ornate, but always exhibit clarity of form and are decorated with classical elements such as columns. In Ontario, the Beaux-Arts style was most prominently used for civic buildings. The Beaux-Arts style is not common in Ontario’s places of worship, though a number of examples can be found in southern Ontario.

    7 record(s) found

  • 5 Byzantine Revival

    Inspired by the golden age of Emperor Justinian in the mid-6th century, this style draws on the monuments of Constantinople and Ravenna – the best-known being the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Characteristic forms include massive round arches, domes atop thick walls, barrel vaults, mosaics on the interior and tiled dome roofs. Floor plans of Byzantine Revival churches often consist of a large domed central space on a Greek cross central plan. The style is closely associated with eastern European religious architecture. In Canada, Byzantine Revival-style places of worship were built from the late 19th century onwards, at first mostly in the western provinces where eastern Europeans first settled in Canada. In Ontario, a few prominent examples were built in the first decade of the 20th century (e.g., St. Anne's Anglican Church, 270 Gladstone Avenue, Toronto) and were considered avant-garde at the time. More Byzantine Revival places of worship were built in Ontario in the mid-20th century, reflecting the settlement patterns of eastern Europeans in the province.

    54 record(s) found

  • 6 Eastern Orthodox

    This style of religious architecture was inspired by the Orthodox churches of eastern Europe, Russia, Greece and the near east. Typified by simple and compact massing, domes (onion domes are common), thick wall architecture, intersecting barrel vaults and plain exteriors. The interiors are often highly decorated, including icons, murals and other artwork. Eastern Orthodox architecture is often referred to as Byzantine Revival. Eastern Orthodox places of worship, however, are not typically as wide and do not necessarily have a Greek Cross central plan. Eastern Orthodox can also refer to more superficial applications of eastern architectural details to forms that are more traditionally western European. Examples of Eastern Orthodox architecture can be found throughout the province. Eastern Orthodox places of worship began to appear in Ontario in the 1920s and 1930s, though the majority of them were built in the 1950s and 1960s, as eastern European communities became more established in the province.

    29 record(s) found

  • 7 Edwardian Classicism

    Edwardian Classicism is associated with the reign of King Edward VII (1901-10). The style incorporates Classical features (colonettes, voussiors, keystones, etc.), but they are understated and applied sparingly. Edwardian Classicism has simple, balanced designs, straight rooflines and relatively simple detailing. Cornice brackets and braces are block-like; most doors and windows have flat arches or plain stone lintels. Buildings in this style generally have smooth surfaces and many windows. Compared to the exuberant Victorian predecessor styles, Edwardian Classicism exhibits more compact and simplified massing, restrained use of ornament and less elaborate colour schemes. Detailing is inspired by that of the English Renaissance architects Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren. Popular for residential, commercial and institutional buildings at the turn of the 20th century, this style is relatively uncommon among Ontario’s places of worship. Religious order residences associated with places of worship, however, often employed Edwardian Classicism.

    12 record(s) found

  • 8 English Colonial Revival

    Colonial Revival buildings are a self-conscious attempt to recall the 17th and 18th century architecture of the first colonies in North America. Also known as Neo-Georgian, in Canada the English Colonial Revival is a revival of the architectural styles that arrived with the United Empire Loyalists. The style is more common to residential architecture, but is also found in some places of worship. While this style is uncommon among religious buildings in Ontario, some good examples exist in southern Ontario.

    11 record(s) found

  • 9 French Colonial Revival

    5 record(s) found

  • 10 Georgian

    Technically, the term “Georgian” refers to an era more than a style, spanning the reigns of George I to George IV (1715-1830). Georgian architecture, however, can be characterized by a formal arrangement of parts; it employs symmetrical composition enriched with classical details, such as columned facades. Georgian architecture in Upper Canada (now Ontario) was inspired by the vernacular architecture of early American colonies. It can be found in some of the earliest towns in southern Ontario – United Empire Loyalist settlements, in particular.

    25 record(s) found

  • 11 Gothic Revival

    Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that sought to revive the Gothic style, which flourished in Europe in the medieval period. The Gothic Revival movement began in the 1740s in England; interest in reviving the style soon spread to North America. With regard to religious architecture, the Gothic Revival was intertwined with the “High Church” movement and the Anglo-Catholic concern with the growth of religious non-conformism. The style had massive appeal, however, and became more widespread in the third quarter of the 19th century. There are a number of stylistic streams of Gothic Revival architecture, though styles are often mixed. Common features between the different styles include: pointed arch windows, rib vaulted ceilings, buttresses, steeply pitched roofs and an overall emphasis on height. Gothic Revival architecture was massively popular in Ontario, and was the most common style for religious buildings in the mid- to late 19th century. The emergence of Gothic Revival coincided with Ontario’s early settlement by Europeans and was at the height of its popularity just as many of Ontario’s towns and cities began to boom. Today, many Christian religious groups still associate the Gothic esthetic with their places of worship. It is common to find modern buildings that incorporate some Gothic elements.

    2057 record(s) found

  • 12 Gothic Revival - Cathedral Style

    1 record(s) found

  • 13 Gothic Revival - Gothick

    1 record(s) found

  • 14 Gothic Revival - Italian Gothic

    1 record(s) found

  • 15 Gothic Revival - Neo-French

    1 record(s) found

  • 16 Gothic Revival - Quebec Gothic

    10 record(s) found

  • 17 Gothic Revival – Carpenter's Gothic

    Carpenter’s Gothic structures are made of wood and are typically simple in their construction, but use a number of elements to create the vertical effect that is a hallmark of Gothic Revival architecture. They are often clad with vertical board and batten sheathing, as well as gable roofs, which work to create an elongated façade. The structures also often use superficial and non-academic application of trim, moulding and mill work from pattern books to emulate a Gothic Revival churches. This architectural type was once quite common in Ontario, but has become increasingly rare.

    127 record(s) found

  • 18 Gothic Revival – Collegiate Gothic

    Also called Neo-Gothic, this style found application in educational architecture (schools, colleges and universities), as well as religious architecture. Using such materials as machine-cut stone and cast stone applied to concrete and steel structures, or diamond-pattern glass windows (mimicking the effect of leaded glass windows), it was a wholly modern and polished application of late Gothic and Elizabethan motifs to 20th-century building systems. Collegiate Gothic architecture was widely used by Christian faiths in Ontario in the first half of the 20th century. A number of well-preserved examples can be found across the province.

    203 record(s) found

  • 19 Gothic Revival – Commissioner's Gothic

    The Commissioner’s Gothic Revival style originated in England with the Church Building Act of 1818, which made £1 million available in order to build Anglican churches in English suburbs and towns to strengthen the Church of England against the perceived threats of non-conformist congregations, the industrial revolution and societal unrest. The Church Commission perceived Gothic to be the most economical architectural church style, as it could be fashioned from brick and needed only a belfry and lancet windows to distinguish a building as a church. This generally led to buildings resembling the rectangular-shaped, preaching-box churches of the Classically-inspired architect James Gibbs (1682-1754) that were “Gothicized” by the addition of lancet windows and applied Gothic ornament. In Canada, Commissioner’s Gothic churches are characterized by a rectangular-shaped church body with a low-pitched roof and a small chancel; there are lancet windows and shallow or no buttresses. The interior usually presents a hall plan with a west-end organ gallery and an east-end altar. Ontario examples of the style include: St. George’s Anglican Church, St. Catharines; Little Trinity Anglican Church, Toronto; and Old St. Thomas Church, St. Thomas.

    6 record(s) found

  • 20 Gothic Revival – Ecclesiological Gothic

    The Ecclesiological style was influenced by the writings of the High-Church Cambridge Camden Society (later the Ecclesiological Society). Founded in 1839, the society published and distributed pamphlets and later a journal (The Ecclesiologist), which emphasized that church and cathedral designs should be informed by academic and archaeological study of Gothic architecture. This idea was based on the medievalist views of Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812-52), who advocated that the Gothic period represented a religious and cultural high-point in European, specifically English, history. Churches and cathedrals of this style were often built by leading architects and master-builders. They tended to be prominent churches within their respective diocese.

    6 record(s) found

  • 21 Gothic Revival – French Gothic

    Influenced by the architecture of Gothic cathedrals in northern France, French Gothic Revival places of worship emphasize height and an impression of verticality, both inside and out. Other common characteristics include three front entrances, topped by a rose window and flanked by two front towers, and interiors that unified the nave and chancel. Closely associated with Roman Catholicism, French Gothic architecture became popular as the faith grew and established itself in Canada during the period between the Act of Union (1841) and Confederation (1867). The leading proponent of this style in Ontario was architect Joseph Connolly. Examples include the Church of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception in Guelph (1877) and St. Mary of the Assumption Church in Owen Sound (1871).

    7 record(s) found

  • 22 Gothic Revival – High Victorian

    Influenced by the writings of John Ruskin (1819-1900) and the work of William Butterfield (1814-1900), this variant of Gothic Revival features playful colouring, incorporating polished granites, marbles, multi-coloured and pattered brickwork and tile work. The style is more eclectic than other Gothic Revival styles, free in expression and less archaeologically derivative. This style coincided with a major period of growth throughout Ontario, and is a very common type in the province. Leading practitioners of the style in Ontario were architects Henry Langley and Edmund Burke.

    51 record(s) found

  • 23 Gothic Revival – Modern

    80 record(s) found

  • 24 Greek Revival

    The Greek Revival style is inspired by Greek temples, classical proportions and classical details. The style emerged at a time when the British were developing a fascination with Greek architecture. Greek Revival architecture was also popular with Americans, who valued the association with Greece, considered the birthplace of democracy. Greek Revival structures are rarely archaeologically correct. The style was often blended with other styles, such as the American “Federal-style” architecture. This style is relatively rare in Ontario’s places of worship, though there are several examples in other buildings in southern Ontario.

    14 record(s) found

  • 25 Indian Revival

    In Ontario, this style is a reinterpretation of Indian architecture, primarily Moghul and late Hindu. In its earliest instances in Ontario, it was tied to the picturesque movement and often intermingled with exotic pavilions during the Regency and into the Victorian era. Today, the term Indian Revival is more likely to be used to describe modern architecture that references architecture of India. The style is often found in community centres and places of worship for Indian-Canadian communities. The application of architectural details and traditional Indian building practices range a great deal from building to building. Some buildings duplicate ancient building practices, while others superficially apply Indian architectural details to conventional North American building systems. With regard to Ontario’s places of worship, the latter understanding of the term Indian Revival is more common, since during the Regency and Victorian eras, Indian architectural motifs were not typically applied to religious buildings. Since the 1960s, there have been a growing number of Indian Revival style places of worship in Ontario, many of which are found in suburban locations surrounding Ontario's major cities.

    3 record(s) found

  • 26 Italianate

    This style is inspired by Italian Renaissance villas and palazzos and linked to the picturesque movement. Inigo Jones (1573-1652) was the first architect to bring Italianate architecture to England. British architects Charles Barry (1795-1860) and John Nash (1752-1835) developed and popularized the style. The style borrows classical vocabulary, which tends to be concentrated around the doors and windows. Trademark features of this style include deeply round arches, overhanging eaves and robust eave brackets, shallow roofs, corner quoins and asymmetrical square towers. The Italianate style was a popular style for commercial and residential buildings, but less commonly used for religious buildings in Ontario.

    52 record(s) found

  • 27 Jacobean Revival

    A revival of forms from early to mid-17th-century England – specifically associated with the reigns of James I and Charles I – Jacobean architecture adopted Renaissance motifs in a free form, but were communicated to English architecture through German and Flemish carvers rather than directly from Italy. Although the general lines of Elizabethan design remained, there was a more consistent and unified application of formal design, both in plan and elevation. Much use was made of columns and pilasters, round-arch arcades and flat roofs with openwork parapets. These and other classical elements appeared in a free manner rather than with any true classical purity. British architect Edwin Lutyens (1869-1944) was a proponent of the Jacobean Revival style. In North America, this style is mainly found in country houses and estates, and is often blended with the Queen Anne style. It is very rarely found in Ontario’s religious architecture.

    3 record(s) found

  • 28 Modern

    After the First World War, designers sought to break from the past and looked for an esthetic that would be free from historical references. Modern architecture was adopted by many influential architects and architectural educators. Very few "modern” buildings, however, were built in the first half of the 20th century. The style gained popularity after the Second World War and became the dominant architectural style for institutional and corporate buildings for three decades. While the exact characteristics of modern architecture are open to interpretation, it often incorporates “modern” materials such as steel, glass and concrete. Form follows function – it is often simplified, with very little ornament. Modernism has many streams, each with its own esthetic and theoretical background. Places of worship in the modern style are very common all across Ontario. Additionally, many recent additions to older places of worship were executed in the modern style.

    1782 record(s) found

  • 29 Modern - Minimalism

    1 record(s) found

  • 30 Modern - Structuralism

    11 record(s) found

  • 31 Modern – Brutalism

    Influenced by the post-Second World War designs of Le Corbusier, this style takes its name from the term Béton Brut, or raw concrete, by which the markings of the exposed formwork remain evident on the final finish. The term later came to include the rusticated concrete masonry as seen in the work of Paul Rudolph. Brutalist architecture is very striking in its form, and often employs repetitive angular geometries. Brutalism was a popular style for institutional buildings in Ontario, as its period corresponded with the reinvestment in public infrastructure, high density housing and the boom in colleges and universities that took place in the 1960s and 1970s. Brutalism is relatively uncommon in Ontario’s religious building stock, though Brutalism’s trademark use of rough concrete is incorporated into many modern religious buildings.

    28 record(s) found

  • 32 Modern – Deconstructivism

    Deconstructivism is a label applied to a stream of post-modern architecture, beginning in the late 1980s. While its practitioners come from disparate backgrounds and do not subscribe to one direction or theoretical agenda, it is characterized by fragmentation, an interest in manipulating ideas of a structure's surface or skin and non-rectilinear shapes that serve to distort and dislocate some of the elements of the building, such as structure and envelope. The finished visual appearance of buildings that exhibit the many deconstructivist "styles" is characterized by a stimulating unpredictability and a controlled chaos. Architects associated with the style include: Peter Eisenman, Zaha Hadid, Wolf Prix and Lebbeus Woods. Very few examples of places of worship of this style have been found in Ontario.

  • 33 Modern – High Tech

    The “high tech” stream of modernism is committed to the poetics of structure, transparency and technology. High tech modern buildings reveal their mechanical and structural systems and feature glass, steel and fasteners. In many cases, it seems that technology is not just revealed, but also highlighted, exaggerated and idealized. The style is exhibited through the work of Norman Foster, Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers. High tech modernism is relatively uncommon in Ontario’s places of worship, as the style seems to be a more natural fit with commercial and institutional buildings, or large public spaces such as airport terminals.

    1 record(s) found

  • 34 Modern – International style

    The term “International style” originated with the title of a book by Phillip Johnson and Henry Russell-Hitchcock on the 1932 International Exhibition of Modern Architecture held in New York City, which identified and expanded upon characteristics common to modernism all over the world. The International style was practised by three of the most prominent European modern architects: Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius and Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe. It was intended to be a complete break with history and the use of applied style, and was intended to herald the new machine esthetic to evoke the industrial age. Shared characteristics include: strip windows, flat roofs, grids of supports, cantilevered horizontal planes, metal railings and curved partitions. Abstract features include: the use of simple rectangular volumes articulated by crisp openings; an emphasis on interconnected spaces; and minimal detailing. Very few International Style places of worship exist in Ontario, perhaps because at the time of its arrival, its minimalism and lack of ornamentation appeared to be at odds with the traditional religious form and imagery of many of Ontario’s more established religions.

    3 record(s) found

  • 35 Modern – Organic/Expressionism

    The term “Expressionist architecture” initially described the activities of the German, Dutch, Austrian, Czech and Danish avant garde in the early 20th century. Today, the meaning has broadened to refer to architecture of any date or location that exhibits some of the qualities of the original movement, such as distortion, fragmentation, unusual massing or the communication of overstressed emotion. Organic architecture aims to create buildings that are a unified whole and are integrated into the surrounding landscape. Organic and expressionist architecture is sculptural and may be inspired by natural biomorphic forms, or by the possibilities offered by new technology. While many Ontario congregations chose not to build places of worship of the early modern and international styles, organic or expressionist architecture was a more successful fit with religious buildings. Ontario has a number of excellent examples of places of worship in the Organic/Expressionist style.

    20 record(s) found

  • 36 Moderne

    5 record(s) found

  • 37 Neo-Vernacular

    3 record(s) found

  • 38 Neoclassicism

    Neoclassicism is a broad term describing architecture based on the Greek and Roman orders. Neoclassical buildings are generally symmetrical and are of monumental proportions, finished with a smooth or polished stone surface. Massive porticos often highlight the façade, topped with a pediment and flanked by a series of colossal pilasters. Windows are often in the form of large single-light sashes; attic storeys and parapets are popular. Greek orders are preferred. Therefore, the round arch is not often used and enriched mouldings are rare. Though not as common as religious buildings done in the Gothic Revival or Romanesque Revival styles, there are a number of good examples of neoclassical places of worship in Ontario.

    49 record(s) found

  • 39 Other

    15 record(s) found

  • 40 Palladian

    2 record(s) found

  • 41 Post-Modern

    Post-modern architecture was a reaction against modernism, especially the International style. Post-modernism draws on a number of traditions but without strict adherence to any canon. Ornamental elements reference past architectural styles but often in an abstract way. The style can be humorous and, at times, whimsical. Leading proponents of the style are Michael Graves, Robert Venturi, Hans Hollein, Robert Stern, Charles Moore and (former International modernist) Philip Johnson. While the roots of post-modernism can be found in the mid 1960s, Post-modernism did not come into wide use and acceptance until the 1980s. This period coincided with a decline in attendance among many of the more established religions in Ontario, while some of the more recently arrived faith groups underwent a period of growth. Therefore, Post-modern architecture is more commonly observed in the buildings erected by Christian (Eastern) Orthodox, Evangelical Christians as well as non-Christian faiths. On established sites, major additions to the places of worship, new halls, residences and schools are commonly executed in a Post-modern style.

    38 record(s) found

  • 42 Prairie

    The Prairie style is a style of architecture originating in the American mid-west that was developed by Frank Lloyd Wright and his followers. These buildings have low, horizontal proportions, flat or gently pitched roofs with deep projecting eaves and rectangular massing. They often have a raised central block with lower flanking wings. Prairie style architecture avoids historically derived ornament, but angular geometric patters are common. Plain materials like stucco and brick are preferred for exterior walls. Only one example of a Prairie style place of worship has been identified in Ontario – St. Clare’s Catholic Church in Dwyer Hill. It is an excellent example of the type; it was designed by Ottawa-based architect Francis Conroy Sullivan, a pupil of Frank Lloyd Wright.

    1 record(s) found

  • 43 Queen Anne Revival

    Queen Anne Revival style is one of the most eclectic of the 19th-century styles, as well as the most varied, colourful and light-hearted. It takes its name from Queen Anne of England (who reigned from 1702-14), and blends a number of motifs, including medieval (e.g., Tudor windows and corner towers) and classical (e.g., columns and pilasters, pediments, sash windows, Palladian windows and stringcourses). Queen Anne Revival buildings emphasize balanced composition rather than symmetrical composition, and are often asymmetrical in massing, with irregular rooflines. They incorporate a wide variety of materials, including brick, terra cotta, wood clapboard and wood shingle. In Ontario, the Queen Anne Revival style was most commonly used for residential architecture, but its influence can be seen in religious architecture of that era, appearing as a “hybrid” with other styles.

    40 record(s) found

  • 44 Regency

    The term “Regency” is used to describe the architecture of early 19th-century Britain, when George IV was Prince Regent. Reflecting the Prince’s exotic tastes, the style blended neoclassical architectural elements with Gothic motifs and/or oriental motifs such as Chinoiserie and the “Hindoo” style. Regency buildings are usually one or 1½ storeys. Exterior finishes include scored stucco, brick or ashlar stone. Influenced by British colonial architecture in India and the Caribbean, deep perimeter verandas with bell cast roofs are common. Residential architecture in the Regency style is often cottage-like with tall windows extending almost to grade, and often operating as French doors. Churches built in this style utilized pointed window openings, crenellations and fine ornamental woodwork in superficial applications of Gothic motifs. In Ontario, the Regency style was most commonly used for cottages. Very few places of worship were executed in the Regency style.

    1 record(s) found

  • 45 Renaissance Revival

    The Renaissance Revival style was a conscious revival of Italian Renaissance architecture, particularly the palazzos of the 15th and 16th centuries. Just as the Gothic style was perceived by western architectural theorists as being the most appropriate style for church buildings, the Renaissance palazzo was seen as a model for secular buildings requiring an appearance of dignity and reliability. Renaissance Revival buildings have tightly contained volumes and are symmetrical in composition. They are typically clad in finely cut stone, cast stone or terra cotta. Characteristics include: rusticated quoins; windows framed with architraves; doors supporting entablatures or pediments; and a string course that may separate the first from upper floors. More ornate and sophisticated Renaissance Revival buildings may also have domes and campaniles. Renaissance Revival architecture is uncommon among Ontario’s places of worship, though some excellent examples exist in southern Ontario. While uncommon, these buildings tend to be well-designed and stand out as unique in their communities.

    11 record(s) found

  • 46 Richardsonian Romanesque

    Named for American architect Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-86), the Richardsonian Romanesque style features robust and asymmetrical massing, round corner towers with conical roofs, battered walls, exaggerated rusticated masonry especially at the lower levels and ceramic tile. Polychromatic stone and brickwork and polychrome roof slate are also trademarks. Following the Romanesque tradition, windows and entrances are typically round-headed. The first floor is typically reached via a grand set of stairs. Main entrances often incorporate three or more massive and linked semi-circular arches. Trinity Church in Boston (by H.H. Richardson) is the most prominent example of the style; many buildings in Ontario are modeled after it. Architect E.J. Lennox was the key practitioner of Richardsonian Romanesque in Ontario. Notable examples of this style include Toronto’s Old City Hall and the Ontario Legislative Buildings. The Richardsonian Romanesque style was well suited to religious buildings. Good examples of the style can be found all over the province, particularly in southern Ontario.

    23 record(s) found

  • 47 Romanesque Revival

    The Romanesque Revival style was popular in the late 19th century and was inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque style of architecture. Characteristic features include round arches, semi-circular arches on windows and stringcourses. Romanesque Revival buildings have thick walls and large flat wall surfaces. Romanesque Revival was more restrained than the later Richardsonian Romanesque style. It was used widely for civic and institutional buildings, and can also be found in the architecture of churches and synagogues. Though not as common as religious buildings undertaken in the Gothic Revival or Richardsonian Romanesque styles, there are a number of good examples of Romanesque Revival places of worship in Ontario.

    272 record(s) found

  • 48 Spanish Colonial Revival

    2 record(s) found

  • 49 Tudor Gothic

    1 record(s) found

  • 50 Tudor Revival

    The Tudor Revival architecture of the 20th century (also called Mock Tudor or Tudorbethan) draws on British domestic architecture of the mid- to late 19th century, which was based on a revival of aspects of Tudor architecture (1485-1547). Tudor Revival focuses on the simple, rustic and the less impressive aspects of Tudor architecture, imitating medieval cottages or country homes. The style features steeply pitched roofs, superficial forms of half-timbering (timbers applied to a stuccoed wall) especially common in the gables, herringbone brickwork, Tudor arches, tall mullioned windows, high chimneys and floors that are jettied above porches. Tudor Revival is most commonly used in residential architecture and, as a result, very few churches of this style exist in Ontario.

    19 record(s) found

  • 51 Unknown

    361 record(s) found

  • 52 Vernacular - Aboriginal

    5 record(s) found

  • 53 Vernacular - Dutch-German

    3 record(s) found

  • 54 Vernacular - English

    11 record(s) found

  • 55 Vernacular - French

    8 record(s) found

  • 56 Vernacular - Other

    197 record(s) found

  • 57 Vernacular - Quebec

    37 record(s) found

  • 58 Vernacular - Scottish

    6 record(s) found

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